Race and Rights in American History Sunday, August 3, 2003 to Friday, August 8, 2003 Ashland University, Ashland, Ohio

Instructors: Lucas Morel and Diana Schaub

Readings

  • Howard Brotz, ed., African-American Social and Political Thought, 1850-1920.
  • Frederick Douglass, Philip Foner, ed., Frederick Douglass: Selected Speeches and Writings.
  • W.E.B. Du Bois, Nathan Huggins, ed., W.E.B. Du Bois: Writings.
  • Adam Fairclough, Better Day Coming: Blacks and Equality, 1890-2000.
  • Martin Luther King, Jr., I Have a Dream: Writings and Speeches that Changed the World.
  • Martin Luther King, Jr., Why We Can’t Wait.
  • Shelby Steele, The Content of Our Character: A New Vision of Race in America.
  • Kwame Ture and Charles V. Hamilton, Black Power: The Politics of Liberation.
  • Malcolm X, George Breitman, ed., Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements.
  • Declaration of Independence and Constitution of the United States of America. Ashland, Ohio: Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs, 2001 (or “Ashbrook Center booklet”).
  • Photocopied Reading Packet (or “Packet”).

Schedule

Sunday, August 3

Session One(01:28 minutes)

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7:45 pm – 9:15 pm: Session 1 with Professors Morel and Schaub (Seminar Room, Lower Level, Founders Hall)

    Topic: The Founders on Freedom and Slavery

    Focus: What did the Founders mean in declaring “all men are created equal”? Given the existence of slavery in Revolutionary America, did they really only mean to say that all “white English Protestant Christian males who own property” are created equal? If, on the other hand, the Founders meant the term “men” to be inclusive of all human beings-black and white, male and female-then how are we to understand the relation between their universal principles (which would condemn slavery) and their actual practice (the fact that slavery continued to exist in America until the Civil War)? How does the requirement of consent as the only legitimate basis of government qualify the pursuit of equality in a free society? How are we to regard the handling of slavery in the Constitution? Nowhere is there an explicit reference to slavery in the original document and yet there are clauses that were understood to have reference to slavery and to make some accommodation to it. Are those accommodations morally defensible or not?

    Supplemental/Optional Readings:

  • William B. Allen, “In Defense of George Washington: The True Multiculturalist” (February 18, 2000), 1-9 (Packet)
  • Thomas G. West, Vindicating the Founders (1997), chap. 1, “Slavery,” 1-36 (Packet)

Monday, August 4

Session Two(01:28 minutes)

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9:00 am – 10:30 am: Session 2 with Professor Schaub (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: Emigrationists

Focus: Even while slavery continued, free blacks in America began to reflect on what the best course of action would be after emancipation. The first choice to be made was: do we stay or do we go? Often basing themselves on the historical example of the Israelites, a number of prominent figures argued for a mass emigration, either back to Africa or to other lands in the New World. We will examine the emigrationists’ grim assessment of the prospects for racial equality and racial comity in the United States. As a thought experiment, consider how you would have felt at the time. Would you have favored staying or going? Would a black Exodus have been preferable? Would it have been better or worse for blacks, better or worse for whites, better or worse for America? Is the argument for emigration offensive to you? Would it be more offensive if it were proposed today as the solution for our continuing racial troubles? Is emigration a cowardly solution? A racist one? Or is the idea of emigration realistic, bold, and prophetic?

Readings:

  • Augustus Washington, “African Colonization-By a Man of Color” (July 3, 1851), 13-25 (Packet)
  • Brotz, African-American Social and Political Thought, 1850-1920
    • Martin R. Delaney, “The Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States” (1852), 49-55, 64-73, 79, 88-97
    • Edward W. Blyden, “The African and the Method of Its Solution” (1890), 126-39
    • Alexander Crummell, “The Race Problem in America” (1888), 180-90

Session Three(01:26 minutes)

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10:50 am – 12:15 pm: Session 3 with Professor Schaub (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: Frederick Douglass

Focus: How did Douglass answer the question, “What Country Have I?” What was his critique of the emigrationist position? What was the basis for his greater optimism about race relations in America? What does Douglass obstacles to self-elevation resulting from the experience of slavery? What does his stress on self-elevation indicate about his understanding of freedom? How is self-elevation to be accomplished? What is the rhetorical purpose and effect of the stern language used by Douglass in speaking to his own people?

Readings:

Anti-Emigration–

  • Brotz, African-American Social and Political Thought, 1850-1920
    • “Prejudice Not Natural” (June 8, 1849), 213-15
    • “African Civilization Society” (February 1859), 262-66
    • “The Folly of Colonization” (January 9, 1894), 328-31

Self-Elevation–

  • Brotz, African-American Social and Political Thought, 1850-1920
    • “What are the Colored People Doing for Themselves?” (July 14, 1848), 203-208
    • “Address to the Colored People” (September 29, 1848), 208-13
    • “Letter to Harriet Beecher Stowe” (March 8, 1853), 220-26
  • Douglass, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave (1845), chaps. VI-VII, 35-46 (Packet)
  • Douglass, My Bondage and My Freedom, chap. XVII, “The Last Flogging” (1855), 180-92 (Packet)

Abolition and the Constitution–

Session Four(01:29 minutes)

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4:30 pm – 6:00 pm: Session 4 with Professor Morel (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: Frederick Douglass (continued)

Focus: Over the course of his career as an abolitionist, Douglass moved from regarding the Constitution as an iniquitous compact that ought to be annulled to regarding the Constitution as “a glorious liberty document” that would bring about an end to slavery. What were the reasons for and the effects of this transformation? Just as Douglass was the leading figure in the fight to secure the natural right to liberty for blacks in America, he was the leading figure in the post-war struggle to secure civil rights for African-Americans. Why does Douglass favor justice (“fair play”) over charity (“benevolence”) for black Americans? Why does Douglass counsel black Americans against “race pride”? Why does Douglass consider “the Negro problem” a misnomer for “the nation’s problem” and how does this affect the kind of solutions proposed to help black Americans? If color prejudice is the bane of black Americans, what principles and policies does Douglass propose to eliminate it from American society?

Readings:

Abolition, the Constitution, and the Civil War–

  • Douglass, Frederick Douglass: Selected Speeches and Writings
    • “The Destiny of Colored Americans” (November 16, 1849), 148-49
    • “Change of Opinion Announced” (May 23, 1851), 173-74
  • Brotz, African-American Social and Political Thought, 1850-1920
    • “The Doom of the Black Power” (July 27, 1855), 244-47
    • “Speech on the Dred Scott Decision” (May 1857), 247-62
    • Dred Scott v. Sandford (March 6, 1857) Selections (Packet)
  • Douglass, Frederick Douglass: Selected Speeches and Writings
    • “The Constitution of the United States” (March 26, 1860), 380-90
    • “What Shall Be Done with the Slaves If Emancipated?” (January 1862), 470-73
    • “Men of Color, To Arms!” (March 21, 1863), 525-28
    • “Why Should a Colored Man Enlist?” (April 1863), 528-31
  • Brotz, African-American Social and Political Thought, 1850-1920
    • “Present and Future” (June 1863), 267-77

Reconstruction and the Future of Black Americans–

7:30 pm: Film (Auditorium, 2nd Floor, Hawkins-Conard Student Center)

    Topic: Watch Raisin in the Sun

Tuesday, August 5

Session Five(01:29 minutes)

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9:00 am -10:30 am: Session 5 with Professor Schaub (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: Booker T. Washington

Focus: Washington came into public prominence as a result of a speech he delivered at the Atlanta Exposition in 1895. This speech articulated a strategy of racial reconciliation and accommodation that became known as the Atlanta Compromise. On what issues was Washington prepared to compromise and why? How did his position differ from that of Frederick Douglass (particularly with respect to the 15th Amendment). What understanding of human nature informed Washington’s policy of gradualism? Washington always made clear that he believed African-Americans had a high destiny in America and a particular contribution to make to the life of the nation. What were the essential features of that destiny?

Reading:

  • Washington, Up From Slavery, chap. 3, “The Struggle for an Education,” 42-62 (Packet)
  • Brotz, African-American Social and Political Thought, 1850-1920
    • “Educational Outlook in the South” (July 16, 1884), 351-56
    • “Atlanta Exposition Address” (September 18, 1895), 356-59
    • “Democracy and Education” (September 30, 1896), 362-71
    • “On Making Our Race Life Count in the Life of the Nation” (1906), 379-82
    • “Early Problems of Freedom” (1907), 382-96
  • Washington, “A Sunday Evening Talk” (February 10, 1895), 508-15 (Packet)
  • Washington, “Letter to J.R. Barlow” (March 1, 1911), 608-9 (Packet)
  • Brotz, African-American Social and Political Thought, 1850-1920
    • “The Intellectuals and the Boston Mob” (1911), 423-34
    • “Is the Negro Having a Fair Chance?” (November 1912), 445-60
    • “My View of Segregation Laws” (December 4, 1915), 460-63
  • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), Selections (Packet)
  • Fairclough, Better Day Coming, chap. 3

Supplemental/Optional Readings:

  • Louis Harlan, “Booker T. Washington in Biographical Perspective” (October 1970), 1581-99 (Packet)
  • Brotz, African-American Social and Political Thought, 1850-1920
    • “Hampton Institute Address” (November 18, 1895), 371-72
    • “The Fruits of Industrial Training” (1907), 406-17
    • T. Thomas Fortune, “Political Independence of the Negro” (1884), 336-44
  • Fairclough, Better Day Coming, chap. 2

Session Six(01:22 minutes)

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10:50 am – 12:15 pm: Session 6 with Professor Morel (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: W.E.B. Du Bois

Focus: Why does Du Bois seek to “conserve” the races? How would “the conservation of the races” help the future of the Negro race as well as the future of world civilization? How can the United States help blacks fulfill their destiny? What principles of the American regime appear to run counter to Du Bois’s emphasis on “race organizations” and “race solidarity”? To eliminate color prejudice, what does Du Bois recommend as the respective duties of blacks and whites in America? What does Du Bois mean by “double consciousness” and is this an accurate rendering of the acculturation of blacks in America? Aside from the American “color line,” to what internal source does Du Bois point as a significant obstacle to black achievement? What is the role of “agitation” in securing equal rights under the law?

Reading:

  • Brotz, African-American Social and Political Thought, 1850-1920
    • Du Bois, “The Conservation of Races” (1897), 483-92
    • Du Bois, “The Philadelphia Negro” (1899), 492-508
  • Du Bois, W.E.B. Du Bois: Writings–Souls of Black Folk (1903)
    • “The Forethought,” 357-61
    • “Of Our Spiritual Strivings,” 363-71
  • Brotz, African-American Social and Political Thought, 1850-1920
    • Du Bois, “Declaration of Principles of the Niagara Movement” (1905), 533-37
    • Du Bois, “The Evolution of the Race Problem” (1909), 539-49
  • Du Bois, W.E.B. Du Bois: Writings-The Crisis
    • “The Crisis” (November 1910), 1131
    • “Agitation” (November 1910), 1131-2
    • “I Am Resolved” (January 1912), 1137-8
    • “The Black Man and the Unions” (March 1918), 1173-75
    • “Returning Soldiers” (May 1919), 1179-1181
  • Fairclough, Better Day Coming, chap. 4

Session Seven(01:23 minutes)

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4:30 pm – 6:00 pm: Session 7 with Professor Shaub (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: W.E.B. Du Bois (continued)

Focus: Early in his career, Du Bois delivered a critique of Booker T. Washington’s leadership. What were the essential points of disagreement between them? Du Bois is known as one of the great defenders of the need for higher education, particularly for the “talented tenth.” What does he understand the purposes of liberal education to be? Is his understanding of liberal education compatible with his call for “the conservation of races” and the preservation of racial and cultural distinctness?

Readings:

  • Du Bois, W.E.B. Du Bois: Writings–Souls of Black Folk (1903)
    • “Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others,” 392-404
    • “Of the Training of Black Men,” 424-38
    • “Of the Sons of Master and Man,” 475-92
    • “Of the Faith of the Fathers,” 493-505
    • “The Sorrow Songs,” 536-46
    • “The Afterthought,” 547
  • Brotz, African-American Social and Political Thought, 1850-1920
  • James Weldon Johnson, “Lift Ev’ry Voice and Sing” (1900) (Packet)
  • Fairclough, Better Day Coming, chap. 5

Guest Lecture(01:32 minutes)

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7:30 pm – 9:30 pm: Guest Lecture by Dr. Raymond Wolters (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: W.E.B. Du Bois as Scholar and Political Activist

Wednesday, August 6

Session Eight(01:40 minutes)

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9:00 am -10:30 am: Session 8 with Professor Morel (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: Marcus Garvey; Attacking Segregation in the Courts

Focus: Why does Garvey respond to color prejudice in America more pessimistically than Douglass, Washington, or Du Bois? How does the American context after World War I shape Garvey’s solutions for the plight of black Americans? Why is a Negro nation so important for progress in the protection of the rights of Negroes anywhere in the world?

In Brown v. Board of Education (1954), the Supreme Court briefly traces the history of public schools in America. How does this help the Court argue against racially segregated schools? What role do legal precedents play in the Court’s argument against “separate but equal” schools? What is meant by “intangible considerations” and how does this help the Court establish that the mere act of separating school children by race produces an unequal education? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the Court’s opinion in Brown? If segregated schools did not produce “a feeling of inferiority” on the part of black children, would these schools be unconstitutional according to Brown?

Reading:

  • Brotz, African-American Social and Political Thought, 1850-1920: Marcus Garvey
    • “Race Assimilation” (1922), 553-54
    • “The True Solution of the Negro Problem” (1922), 554-55
    • “An Appeal to the Soul of White America” (1923), 555-59
    • “Racial Reforms and Reformers” (1923), 559-60
    • “Who and What is a Negro?” (January 19, 1923), 560-62
    • “An Appeal to the Conscience of the Black Race to See Itself” (1923), 562-66
    • “The Negro’s Place in World Reorganization” (March 24, 1923), 566-68
    • “Aims and Objects of Movement for Solution of Negro Problem” (1923), 568-72
    • “Racial Ideals” (March 16, 1924), 572-76
  • W.E.B. Du Bois: Writings-The Crisis, “Marcus Garvey” (Dec. 1920/Jan. 1921), 969-79
  • Brown v. Board of Education (1954), 483-96 (Packet)
  • Zora Neale Hurston, “To the Orlando Sentinel” (August 11, 1955), 738-40 (Packet)
  • Langston Hughes, “Harlem” (1951) (Packet)
  • Fairclough, Better Day Coming, chaps. 6, 9-10

Supplemental/Optional Readings:

  • Lucas Morel, “The Joe Louis of the Courtroom” (July/August 1999), 8-10 (Packet)
  • Edmond Cahn, “Jurisprudence” (January 1955), 150-69 (Packet)
  • Fairclough, Better Day Coming, chaps. 7-8

Session Nine(01:12 minutes)

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10:50 am – 12:15 pm: Session 9 with Professor Morel (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: Martin Luther King, Jr.

Focus: Why does King reject force as a response to oppression? What is the major concern of the white clergymen who counsel King to stay away from Birmingham? What are the four stages of civil disobedience? How does King’s civil disobedience (or nonviolent resistance) against a particular law actually support obedience to the government and laws? Why does King blame white moderates more than fringe elements like the Ku Klux Klan for lack of progress in securing civil rights for black Americans? What is the role of the church and God in King’s leadership of the modern Civil Rights Movement? In his “I Have a Dream” speech, does King combine religion and politics in a way that upholds or subverts what has come to be known as the “wall of separation” between church and state?

Reading:

  • Clergymen, “Letter to Martin Luther King” (April 12, 1963), 282-83 (Packet)
  • King, I Have a Dream: Writings and Speeches
  • King, Why We Can’t Wait
    • “Commitment Card” (1963), 50-52 and photos, after 102

Supplemental/Optional Readings:

Session Ten(01:29 minutes)

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4:30 pm – 6:00 pm: Session 10 with Professor Morel (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: Martin Luther King, Jr.

Focus: Does King’s proposal for a “Bill of Rights for the Disadvantaged” indicate a shift from his earlier vision of the American dream? Does King’s advocacy of “compensatory or preferential treatment” look more to race or poverty as its justification? Is the GI Bill of Rights a good analogy for King’s promotion of a federal, economic program to help blacks and the disadvantaged, generally? What does “black power” mean to King? What does President Johnson mean by comparing “equality as a right” with “equality as a result”?

Reading:

  • King, Why We Can’t Wait
    • Chap. 8, “The Days to Come,” 116-43 (1964)
  • Lyndon B. Johnson, “‘To Fulfill These Rights’: Commencement Address at Howard University” (June 4, 1965), 201-208 (Packet)
  • King, I Have a Dream: Writings and Speeches
    • “Black Power Defined” (June 11, 1967), 153-65
    • “Where Do We Go from Here?” (August 16, 1967), 169-79
    • “I See the Promised Land” (April 3, 1968), 193-203
  • Christopher Lasch, The True and Only Heaven, 386-411 (Packet)

Supplemental/Optional Readings:

  • King, I Have a Dream: Writings and Speeches
    • “A Time to Break Silence” (April 4, 1967), 135-52
  • Clayborne Carson, “Martin Luther King, Jr.: Charismatic Leadership in a Mass Struggle” (September 1987), 448-54 (Packet)

7:30 pm – 9:30 pm: Seminar on Lesson Planning with Master Teacher (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Thursday, August 7

Session Eleven(01:24 minutes)

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9:00 am -10:30 am: Session 11 with Professor Shaub (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: Malcolm X

Focus: Malcolm X insists that there is no legitimate intermediate position between “the ballot” and “the bullet.” He is highly critical of King’s reliance on “civil” disobedience. Is he correct? How does his understanding of political action (and particularly the justification for violence) compare to the right of revolution as articulated by John Locke and enshrined in the Declaration of Independence? Why did Malcolm X reject integration as an aim of the civil rights struggle? Why must black nationalism be an internationalist movement?

Reading:

  • Louis Lomax, When the Word is Given, “A Summing Up” (1963), 169-80 (Packet)
  • Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks
    • “Message to Grassroots” (November 10, 1963), 3-17
    • “A Declaration of Independence” (March 12, 1964), 18-22
    • “The Ballot or the Bullet” (April 3, 1964), 23-44
    • “At the Audubon” (December 20, 1964), 115-136
    • “Last Answers and Interviews” (November 23, 1964-February 21, 1965), 194-226
  • Shelby Steele, “Malcolm Little: The Deep Appeal of Malcolm X’s Conservatism,” New Republic (December 21, 1992), 1-6 (Packet)
  • Cornel West, Race Matters, chap. 8, “Malcolm X and Black Rage,” 95-105
  • Fairclough, Better Day Coming, chap. 14

Session Twelve(01:30 minutes)

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10:50 am – 12:15 pm: Session 12 with Professor Schaub (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: Black Power and Its Critics

Focus: Carmichael, Hamilton, Hooks, and Steele are all centrally concerned with self-esteem. Compare and contrast their analyses of what self-esteem is, why it is so important, how demeaning stereotypes affect self-esteem, and how self-esteem can be achieved. What are the points in contention between these thinkers? What are the varying assessments of middle-class America?

Reading

  • Kwame Ture (aka Stokely Carmichael) and Charles V. Hamilton, Black Power (1967; 1992), chaps. II-III and “Afterword, 1992″ (Hamilton), 34-85, 201-18
  • Shelby Steele, The Content of Our Character (1990), chaps. 1-6, 1-109
  • bell hooks, Killing Rage: Ending Racism (1995)
    • “Killing Rage: Militant Resistance,” 8-20 (Packet)
    • “Refusing to be a Victim,” 51-61 (Packet)
    • “Overcoming White Supremacy: A Comment,” 184-95 (Packet)
  • Ralph Ellison, Selections (Packet)

Supplemental/Optional Readings

  • Kwame Ture and Charles V. Hamilton, Black Power (1967), chaps. IV-VI, 86-145

Art of Teaching Seminar(01:12 minutes)

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4:30 pm – 6:00 pm: Art of Teaching Seminar with Professor Schramm (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Guest Lecture(01:14 minutes)

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7:30 pm – 9:30 pm: Guest Lecture by Dr. Carol Swain (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: New Approaches to Old Racial Problems

Friday, August 8

Session Thirteen(01:29 minutes)

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9:00 am -10:30 am: Session 13 with Professor Morel (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: Affirmative Action

Focus: In the cases of Grutter and Gratz, which of the Supreme Court’s opinions (majority, concurring, or dissenting) made the best argument to uphold or reject the University of Michigan’s affirmative action policies? What does it mean to “take affirmative action”? How has affirmative action, in principle and practice, changed from its origins in the early 1960s? How does the argument for “diversity” differ from the argument for affirmative action as a “remedy” for past injury?

Reading:

  • Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger (2003) (Packet)
  • Ralph Ellison, “‘A Completion of Personality’: A Talk with Ralph Ellison” (1974), 798-806 (Packet)
  • William G. Bowen and Neil L. Rudenstine, “Race-Sensitive Admissions: Back to Basics” (February 7, 2003), 1-7 (Packet)
  • Shelby Steele, The Content of Our Character (1990), chaps. 7-8 and Epilogue, 111-48, 167-75

Supplemental/Optional Readings:

Session Fourteen(01:17 minutes)

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10:50 am – 12:15 pm: Session 14 with Professor Morel and Shaub (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: Black Reparations and Racial Profiling

Focus: What are black reparations? What are the strongest arguments for and against black reparations? What is racial profiling? What are the strongest arguments for and against racial profiling?

Readings:

Black Reparations —

  • Gen. William T. Sherman, “Special Field Orders, No. 15″ (January 16, 1865) (Packet)
  • Abraham Lincoln, “Second Inaugural Address” (March 4, 1865), 55-57 (Ashbrook Center booklet)
  • Frederick Douglass, “The Blessings of Liberty and Education” (September 3, 1894), 616-29 (Packet)
  • Thurgood Marshall, Regents v. Bakke (June 28, 1978), separate opinion (Packet)
  • Charles Krauthammer, “Reparations for Black Americans” (December 31, 1990) (Packet)
  • Molefi Kete Asante, “The African American Warrant for Reparations” (2003), 3-13 (Packet)
  • John McWhorter, “Against Reparations” (July 23, 2001) (Packet)
  • Dinesh D’Souza, What’s So Great About America (2002), chap. 4, “The Reparations Fallacy: What African-Americans Owe America,” 101-31 (Packet)
  • Allen Guelzo, “Reparations Then and Now” (June/July 2002), 32-36 (Packet)

Racial Profiling–

  • Jeffrey Goldberg, “The Color of Suspicion” (June 20, 1999) (Packet)
  • Randall Kennedy, “Suspect Policy” (September 13, 1999), 30-35 (Packet)
  • Heather MacDonald, “The Myth of Racial Profiling” (Spring 2001) (Packet)
  • James Q. Wilson and Heather R. Higgins, “Profiles in Courage” (January 10, 2002) (Packet)

Supplemental/Optional Readings:

  • “Making the Case for Racial Reparations,” Harper’s Magazine (November 2000), 37-51 (Packet)
  • Gene Callahan and William Anderson, “The Roots of Racial Profiling” (August/September 2001) (1-9) (Packet)
  • Randall Kennedy, “Blind Spot” (April 2002) (1-2) (Packet)

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