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Caleb Strong

Caleb StrongState: Massachusetts

Age at Convention: 42

Date of Birth: January 9, 1745

Date of Death: November 7, 1819

Schooling: Harvard 1764

Occupation: Lawyer, Public Security Interests

Prior Political Experience: State Lower House of Massachusetts 1776 & 1784, Upper House of Massachusetts 1780-1782, Massachusetts Constitutional Convention 1779, Attended State Constitutional Convention of Massachusetts 1779-1780

Committee Assignments: None

Convention Contributions: Arrived May 28, departed the Convention August 23 and never returned. Caleb Strong moderated the Massachusetts position with respect to a strong central Government. He supported the Connecticut Compromise. William Pierce stated that "he is a lawyer of some eminence … [but] … as a speaker he is feeble and without confidence."

New Government Participation: Attended the Massachusetts ratification convention and supported ratification of the Constitution. Served as one of the first Senators for Massachusetts (1789-1796).


Biography from the National Archives: Strong was born to Caleb and Phebe Strong on January 9, 1745 in Northampton, Massachusetts. He received his college education at Harvard, from which he graduated with highest honors in 1764. Like so many of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention, Strong chose to study law and was admitted to the bar in 1772. He enjoyed a prosperous country practice.

From 1774 through the duration of the Revolution, Strong was a member of Northampton's committee of safety. In 1776 he was elected to the Massachusetts General Court and also held the post of county attorney for Hampshire County for 24 years. He was offered a position on the state supreme court in 1783 but declined it.

At the Constitutional Convention, Strong counted himself among the delegates who favored a strong central government. He successfully moved that the House of Representatives should originate all money bills and sat on the drafting committee. Though he preferred a system that accorded the same rank and mode of election to both houses of Congress, he voted in favor of equal representation in the Senate and proportional in the House. Strong was called home on account of illness in his family and so missed the opportunity to sign the Constitution. However, during the Massachusetts ratifying convention, he took a leading role among the Federalists and campaigned strongly for ratification.

Massachusetts chose Strong as one of its first U.S. senators in 1789. During the 4 years he served in that house, he sat on numerous committees and participated in framing the Judiciary Act. Caleb Strong wholeheartedly supported the Washington administration. In 1793, he urged the government to send a mission to England and backed the resulting Jay's Treaty when it met heated opposition.

Caleb Strong, the Federalist candidate, defeated Elbridge Gerry to become Governor of Massachusetts in 1800. Despite the growing strength of the Democratic party in the state, Strong won reelection annually until 1807. In 1812 he regained the governorship, once again over Gerry, and retained his post until he retired in 1816. During the War of 1812 Strong withstood pressure from the Secretary of War to order part of the Massachusetts militia into federal service. Strong opposed the war and approved the report of the Hartford Convention, a gathering of New England Federalists resentful of Jeffersonian policies.

Strong died on November 7, 1819, 2 years after the death of his wife, Sarah. He was buried in the Bridge Street Cemetery in Northampton. Four of his nine children survived him.