An essential starting point

Read The Documents That Shaped America

In 1825, James Madison and Thomas Jefferson discussed by letter the kinds of texts that should be required reading at the recently founded university in Virginia. It is certainly very material that the true doctrines of liberty, as exemplified in our Political System, should be inculcated on those who are to sustain and may administer it, Madison wrote. It is, at the same time, he continued, not easy to find standard books that will be both guides & guards for the purpose. Madison proceeded to recommend certain fundamental documents as essential reading for future citizens and statesmen, including the Declaration of Independence, The Federalist, and George Washington's Farewell Address.

The Ashbrook Center's list of 50 Core Documents is meant to fulfill those same purposes. This list is meant to affirm the value and usefulness of reading original documents (as opposed to textbook summaries of major issues), and to introduce readers to America's story as it has unfolded from the American Founding into the 20th Century. We chose these documents not necessarily because they have some official status (some are considered official, but many are private letters), or because they are the most widely read. Rather, each document tells us something important about the American mind, to borrow a term from Thomas Jefferson's 1825 letter to Henry Lee; in other words, they reveal a certain turn of each author's thought about the basic principles of economic, religious, or political liberty.

This list is by no means definitive or comprehensive, but is a starting point. It serves as an introduction to aspects of American thought and history that are deeply interesting, even surprising, and that will, we hope, entice readers to want to read and learn more. Many of the documents emphasize America's uniqueness and contributions to the world, which is one way to view the American narrative. But the documents were also selected to present different views on some of the major issues and disputes in American history and government especially on the meaning of the Constitution, the injustice of slavery, and the demands of progress. Taken as such, the documents reveal a kind of political dialogue to readers, an ongoing and profoundly consequential conversation about how Americans have agreed and often disagreed on the meaning of freedom and self-government. Our list of 50 Core Documents invites teachers and citizens alike to join in this American political dialogue. And because these documents can help citizens better understand the true principles of liberty and acquire the prudence needed to apply them in the varying circumstances of American politics, we consider them to be essential reading for high school students, who will have the responsibility of sustaining and administering our republic in the future.


  • Declaration of Independence Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776
  • Declaration of Independence Memorial and Remonstrance Against Religious Assessments by James Madison, June 20, 1785
  • Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom by Thomas Jefferson, January 16, 1786
  • Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787 Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787 by James Madison, 1787
  • Constitution of the United States Constitution of the United States September 17, 1787
  • Brutus I Brutus I by Brutus, October 18, 1787
  • Federalist No. 1 Federalist No. 1 by Publius (Alexander Hamilton)October 27, 1787

...and 43 more core documents!