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Ratification of the Constitution

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Ratification of the Constitution

The years were 1787 and 1788. The places: “out-of-doors” in newspapers and pamphlets throughout America’s thirteen states and “in-doors” in the state ratifying conventions. Following the Constitutional Convention, a great debate took place throughout America over the Constitution that had been proposed. This is the story of the debate over the ratification of the United States Constitution.

GENERAL OVERVIEW

Introduction to this Web Site by Gordon Lloyd

The Six Stages of Ratification by Gordon Lloyd

Ratification Timeline by Gordon Lloyd

Biographies of the Key Figures by Gordon Lloyd

The Original Constitution

OUT-OF-DOORS DEBATE

The Federalist Papers

Introduction by Gordon Lloyd

Design of the Federalist Papers by Gordon Lloyd

The Essential Federalist Papers by Gordon Lloyd

The Complete Federalist Papers and
Other Federalist Authors

The Antifederalists

Introduction by Gordon Lloyd

The Legacy of the Antifederalists by Gordon Lloyd

The Essential Antifederalists by Gordon Lloyd

The Complete Antifederalists

IN-DOORS DEBATE

In-Depth Studies of the Ratification States:

Massachusetts (Winter 1788)

Introduction by Gordon Lloyd

Day-by-Day Summary by Gordon Lloyd

Massachusetts Ratifying Convention
Collected by Jonathan Elliot

Massachusetts Amendment Proposals

Virginia (Summer 1788)

Introduction by Gordon Lloyd

Day-by-Day Summary by Gordon Lloyd

Virginia Ratifying Convention
Collected by Jonathan Elliot

Virginia Amendment and Bill of Rights Proposals

New York (Summer 1788)

Introduction by Gordon Lloyd

Day-by-Day Summary by Gordon Lloyd

New York Ratifying Convention
Collected by Jonathan Elliot

New York Amendment and Bill of Rights Proposals


State-by-State Ratification Table
by Gordon Lloyd


Interactive Ratification Maps
Compiled by Gordon Lloyd
and Colleen Garot

Federal Pillars
The Federal Pillars

Original Sources Used on This Site:

The Debates in the Several State Conventions, on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution, as Recommended by the General Convention at Philadelphia, in 1787
Collected by Jonathan Elliot

Pennsylvania and the Federal Constitution, 1787-1788
Edited by John Bach McMaster and Frederick D. Stone

The Geographical Distribution of the Vote of the Thirteen States on the Federal Constitution, 1787-8
by Orin Grant Libby

Documents Illustrative of the Formation of the Union of the American States
Selected, Arranged, and Indexed by Charles C. Tansill

Storing, Herbert J., editor. The Complete Anti-Federalist, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.

Allen, W.B. and Gordon Lloyd, editors. The Essential Antifederalist, Lanham, Maryland: Rowland and Littlefield, 2001.

Carey, George W., editor. The Federalist, Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2001.

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