Signing of the Constitution by Louis S. Glanzman

Pierce Butler (South Carolina) Jared Ingersoll (Pennsylvania) Nicholas Gilman (New Hampshire) Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer (Maryland) John Rutledge (South Carolina) Thomas Fitzsimons (Pennsylvania) William Samuel Johnson (Connecticut) Daniel Carroll (Maryland) George Clymer (Pennsylvania) Alexander Hamilton (New York) William Jackson, Secretary Gunning Bedford, Jr. (Delaware) Richard Bassett (DE) Robert Morris (Pennsylvania) Hugh Williamson (North Carolina) Thomas Mifflin (Virginia) Nathaniel Gorham (Massachusetts) James Wilson (Pennsylvania) George Washington (Virginia) Benjamin Franklin (PA) Jacob Broom (Delaware) James Madison (Virginia) james McHenry (Maryland) William Paterson (New Jersey) William Livingston (New Jersey) Gouverneur Morris (Pennsylvania) Jonathan Dayton (New Jersey) (Rufus King (Massachusetts) Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (South Carolina) George Mason (Virginia) Roger Sherman (Connecticut) John Dickinson (Delaware) David Brearly (New Jersey) Edmund Randolph (Virginia) William Blount (North Carolina) George Read (Delaware) John Blair (Virginia) John Langdon (New Hamsphire) Abraham Baldwin (Georgia) Richard Dobbs Spaight (North Carolina) Charles Pinckney (South Carolina) William Few (Georgia) Elbridge Gerry (Massachusetts)

Commissioned by Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey State Societies Daughters of the American Revolution Independence National Historical Park Collection, 1987. Click here to enlarge. Click on a delegate to display his biography.

Louis S. Glanzman was born in 1922 in rural Virginia. Glanzman is best known for his portraits, including entries in U.S. Air Force magazines, Readers Digest, The New Yorker, Saturday Evening Post, and Life Magazine. He created the image “Signing of the Constitution” as part of a series of historical covers for Time Magazine that began with bicentennial cover portraits of Washington and Jefferson. See the official website of Louis S. Glanzman for further information on the artist’s vast and important contributions.

There are several unique qualities to the Glanzman painting. Gone are covered widows that give a secretive character to the proceedings. In fact there are no windows in the painting, so we don’t have to deal with the issue of closed and open windows. Gone are Christy‘s flags — —the chandelier is still there and the Rising Sun chair is still visible — —and the license that other artists took with decoration, bunting, and “accessories.” This is a stark and serious, but not a grim and pessimistic, portrayal of the Constitutional Convention room. There is nothing on the walls, but there are several delegates working at tables with papers and pens thus emphasizing the role of the state delegations and the deliberative process. Recent historical research suggests that the Glanzman interpretation is the most historically accurate portrayal: the color of the walls and the features of the signers are authentic.

Glanzman, like Christy, also disguised a delegate. In Glanzman’s case it is Jacob Broom from Delaware who is signing the Constitution with his back turned to the viewer because Glanzman didn’t believe there was an official portrait of Broom! Again, like Christy, he included Jackson to make a total of 40 people in the painting. But, unlike Christy, Glanzman has added the three non-signers: Gerry, Mason, and Randolph for a grand total of 43 present on the last day of the Convention. Washington is still at the center of the portrayal and he is still the tallest of them all, but there is nothing predominantly Washingtonian or exclusively Roman about this portrait. The Rising Sun chair is there, but it is not overpowering. There are no halos, but there’s lots of light.

The above commentary is based, in part, on the following email from Mr. Glanzman’s daughter:

Dear Mr. Lloyd,

I am writing to you on behalf of my father, Louis Glanzman. He requested that I contact you to give his permission to include his image of the Signing of the Constitution on your web-site providing you post his name alongside his work. Please have the credit line read; painting by Louis S. Glanzman.

As far as the history of the painting there is a long list of details of which you may be interested. To begin, my father was commissioned by the Daughters of the American Revolution to create his painting which is the most historically accurate depiction of the event. He worked closely with several historians through the National Parks Department to create the correct color of the walls, the accuracy of the chandelier, wood moldings and various other room details. Through extensive research on his own and images of each delegate which was provided he had to appropriately age each portrait in his painting. There was no record of an image of the delegate from Delaware so my father painted him from the back signing the Constitution. Subtle details such as the snuff on the tables, the delegate with the wooden leg and a male secretary recording the event is accurate information that my father is famous for in his work. An important fact that he noted obviously is that everyone was not present at one time, but for the painting to be used as a educational tool he recorded all the signers. There is more information that my father would be glad to share with you but he would prefer you to call him so he may tell you in his own words.

Thank you for contacting his website and I wish you success in your endeavor. As you are probably aware enacted this year there is now Constitution Day on the public school teaching calendar requiring a lesson to be taught. FYI there is a poster available through the National Parks Department which has a legend included names and position of each delegate.

Sincerely,

Marybeth Glanzman Bortzfield

Contents

Introduction

The year was 1787. The place: the State House in Philadelphia. This is the story of the framing of the federal Constitution.

The Convention

Read the four-act drama and day-by-day summary by Gordon Lloyd, as well as Madison’s Notes on the Convention.

Interactive Map of Historic Philadelphia in the Late 18th Century

Learn about historic Philadelphia and where the founders stayed, ate, and met.

View Interactive

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