Timeline of the Essential Antifederalists


September 1787

   Sep 27, 1787: Cato I (New York)

October 1787

Oct 5, 1787: Centinel I (Pennsylvania)
Oct 8, 1787: Federal Farmer I (Virginia)
Oct 12, 1787: Federal Farmer IV (Virginia)
Oct 18, 1787: Brutus I (New York)
Oct 27, 1787: An Old Whig IV (Pennsylvania)

November 1787

Nov 1, 1787: An Old Whig V (Pennsylvania)
Nov 1, 1787: Brutus II (New York)
Nov 15, 1787: Brutus III (New York)
Nov 22, 1787: Cato V (New York)
Nov 29, 1787: Brutus IV (New York)

December 1787

Dec 13, 1787: Brutus V (New York)
Dec 18, 1787: Agrippa VII (Massachusetts)
Dec 18, 1787: The Dissent of the Minority of the Convention of Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania)


January 1788

Jan 17, 1788: Brutus IX (New York)
Jan 31, 1788: Brutus XI (New York)

March 1788

Mar 20, 1788: Brutus XV (New York)



Learn about the “Out of Doors” debate that took place across the states between those who supported the Constitution, and those who did not.


View the sequence of events and documents of the 1787-1788 “out-of-doors” debates in newspapers in pamphlets during the ratification of the


Learn about the key figures in the Federalist and Antifederalist debate over the proposed Constitution.

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The Federalists

Read Gordon Lloyd’s introduction to the Federalists who supported the Constitution as well as his essential Federalists.

The Antifederalists

Read Gordon Lloyd’s introduction to the Antifederalists who opposed the Constitution as well as his essential Antifederalists.

The Issues

Read perspectives from both sides of the debate on key issues related to government’s role, structure, and powers is a project of the Ashbrook Center at Ashland University

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