Reservations to the Treaty of Peace with Germany

Republican Senators

November 1919

1. The United States so understands and construes Article I
that in case of notice of withdrawal from the League of Nations,
as provided in said Article, the United States shall be the sole
judge as to whether all its international obligations and all
its obligations under the aid Covenant have been fulfilled,
and notice of withdrawal by the United States may be given by
a concurrent resolution of the Congress of the United States.

2. The United States assumes no obligation to preserve the
territorial integrity or political independence of any other country
or to interfere in controversies between nations-whether members
of the League or not-under the provisions of Article 10, or to
employ the military or naval forces of the United States under
any article of the Treaty for any purpose, unless in any particular
case the Congress, which, under the Constitution, has the sole
power to declare war or authorise the employment of the military
or naval forces of the United States, shall by act or joint resolution
so provide.

3. No mandate shall be accepted by the United States under
Article 22 Part 1, or any other provision of the Treaty of Peace
with Germany, except by action of the Congress of the United States.

4. The United States reserves to itself exclusively the right
to decide what questions are within its domestic jurisdiction,
and declares that all domestic and political questions relating
wholly or in part to its internal affairs, including immigration,
labour, coast-wise traffic, the tariff, commerce, the suppression
of traffic of women and children and in opium and other dangerous
drugs, and all other domestic questions are solely within the
jurisdiction of the United States and are not under this Treaty
to be submitted in any way either to arbitration or to the consideration
of the Council or of the Assembly of the League of Nations or
any agency thereof, or to the decision or recommendation of any
other Power.

5. The United States will not submit to arbitration or to inquiry
by the Assembly or by the Council of the League of Nations provided
for in said Treaty of Peace any questions which in the judgement
of the United States depend upon or relate to its long established
policy commonly known as the Monroe doctrine; said doctrine to
be interpreted by the United States alone, and is hereby declared
to be wholly outside the jurisdiction of said League of Nations
and entirely unaffected by any provision contained in the said
Treaty of Peace with Germany….

7. The Congress of the United States will provide by law for
the appointment of the representatives of the United States in
the Assembly and the Council of the League of Nations.

8. … and until such participation and appointment have been
so provided for and the powers and duties of such representatives
so defined, no person shall represent the United States under
either said League of Nations or the Treaty of Peace with Germany
or be authorised to perform any act for or on behalf of the United
States thereunder….

9. The United States shall not be obligated to contribute to
any expenses of the League of Nations, or of the secretariat or
of any commission, or committee, or conference, or other agency,
organised under the League of Nations or under the Treaty, or
for the purpose of carrying out the Treaty provisions, unless
and until an appropriation of funds available for such expenses
shall have been made by the Congress of the United States.

10. If the United States shall at any time adopt any plan for
the limitation of armaments proposed by the Council of the League
of Nations under the provisions of Article 8, it reserves the
right to increase such armaments without the consent of the Council
whenever the United States ’ is threatened with invasion or engaged
in war.

11. The United States reserves the right to permit, in its
discretion, the nationals of a Covenant-breaking State, as defined
in Article 16 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, residing
within the United States or in countries other than that violating
said Article 16, to continue their commercial, financial, and
personal relations with the nationals of the United States. .
. .

12. The United States withholds its assent to Part XIII (Articles
387-427 inclusive) [ILO provisions] unless Congress by act or
joint resolution shall hereafter make provision for representation
in the Organisation established by said Part XIII, and in such
event participation of the United States will be governed by and
conditional on the provisions of such act or joint resolution.

13. The United States assumes no obligation to be bound by
any election, decision, report, or finding of the Council or Assembly
in which any member of the League and its self-governing dominions,
colonies, or parts of the Empire in the aggregate have cast more
than one vote, and assumes no obligation to be bound by any decision,
report or finding of the Council or Assembly arising out of any
dispute between the United States and any member of the League
if such member or any self-governing dominion, colony, empire,
or part of empire united with it politically has voted.

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