Free Summer Institutes for Social Studies Teachers: American Founding (June 23, 2002 to June 28, 2002) Home > Free Summer Institutes > Previous Institutes > American Founding (June 23, 2002 to June 28, 2002) > Readings and Audio Recordings The American Revolution and the Founding of a New Nation Sunday, June 23, 2002 to Friday, June 28, 2002 Ashland University, Ashland, Ohio

Instructors: Christopher Flannery and Gordon Lloyd

Readings

  • Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1987. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/
  • Alexander Hamilton, et al. The Federalist. Clinton Rossiter, ed. New York, New York: New American Library, 1999. (ISBN: 0451628810)
  • James Madison. Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1987. (ISBN: 0393304051)
  • Gordon Lloyd and Margie Lloyd, eds. The Essential Bill of Rights: Original Arguments and Fundamental Documents. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1998. (ISBN: 0761810765)
  • William B. Allen and Gordon Lloyd, eds. The Essential Antifederalist: Second Edition. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002. (ISBN: 0742521885)
  • Declaration of Independence and Constitution of the United States of America. Ashland, Ohio: Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs, 2001. (ISBN 1878802332)
  • Websites: See Gordon Lloyd, School of Public Policy, Pepperdine University: www.pepperdine.edu

Schedule

Sunday, June 23

Introduction(74:53 minutes)

RealAudio:Click Here to Listen

HelpListening

Introduction: 7:45 pm – 8:30 pm (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Monday, June 24

Session One(86:46 minutes)

RealAudio:Click Here to Listen

HelpListening

Session 1 with Professor Flannery: 9:00 am -10:30 am (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: “Apple of Gold:” The Centrality of the Declaration of Independence in American Political Life

Focus: Why is it important to understand the Declaration of Independence? What does the Declaration say, and why and how does it say it? What does the Declaration not say, and why and how does it not say it? What is the significance of Jefferson’s draft of the Declaration? What does the Declaration mean, and what does the Declaration not mean? What is the philosophical and historical heritage on which the Declaration draws?

Reading:

Session Two(38:13 minutes)

RealAudio:Click Here to Listen

HelpListening

Session 2 with Professor Flannery: 10:50 am – 12:20 pm (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: “The American Mind”

Focus: What is the logic of the argument of the Declaration? Reflections (time permitting) on the course of human events, people, the laws of nature and of nature’s God, decent respect for the opinions of mankind, self evident truths, equality, rights, liberty, the pursuit of happiness, consent, prudence, the ends of government, the right to abolish government and institute new government, facts submitted to a candid world, sacred honor, and more.

Reading:(from The Founders Constitution)

Session Three(89:07 minutes)

RealAudio:Click Here to Listen

HelpListening

Session 3 with Professor Lloyd: 4:30 pm – 6:00 pm (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: Governments Instituted Among Men: Confederation and State Constitutions

Focus:What were the common elements of “republicanism” as reflected in the new state constitutions adopted in the course of the American Revolution? To what extent did the Americans take their bearings from “experience,” to what extent from abstract theory, in forming their new constitutions? How did the idea of the “constitutional convention” and popular ratification develop? What were the leading features of the “first” American constitution, the Articles of Confederation? How republican and how federal were the Articles of Confederation?

Reading:

Tuesday, June 25

Session Four(91:53 minutes)

RealAudio:Click Here to Listen

HelpListening

Session 4 with Professor Lloyd: 9:00 am -10:30 am (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: Constitutional Convention I: Debating the Virginia Plan

Focus: In what respects did the “Virginia Plan” represent a new constitution rather than a mere revision of the Articles? Of what significance were the rules adopted by the convention? What were the delegates’ initial reactions and questions concerning the Virginia Plan? Did the delegates exceed their authority when they decided to consider the Virginia Plan? Why did the delegates seem to be so frightened by the prospect of democracy? What did the delegates mean when they spoke of a national government as opposed to a federal government? Why did the delegates take up the question of the executive branch with such reluctance? What different principles animate the New Jersey and Virginia Plans and the Hamilton Proposal? What are the arguments for representation of the states, as opposed to the people, in the federal government? Compare the national and the federal views. Consider the discussions of the executive power and bicameralism in the context of “republican principles.” What do “republican principles” say about the sources of power, the powers, and the structure of the federal government? Is Madison’s extended republic argument a departure from republican principles? What are the arguments for the “legality” of the New Jersey Plan?

Reading:

  • James Madison, Vices of the Political System of the United States (The Essential Bill of Rights, p. 246-253)
  • James Madison, Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787, May 29, May 31, June 6, June 11, June 13, June 15, and June 18

Session Five(89:14 minutes)

RealAudio:Click Here to Listen

HelpListening

Session 5 with Professor Lloyd: 10:50 am – 12:20 pm (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: Constitutional Convention II: The Convention in Crisis

Focus: Why did Madison think that the issue facing the delegates was not small states vs. large states? How did the “partly national, partly federal” concept enter the discussion? Who changed their minds and why? Who favored and who opposed the Connecticut Compromise?

Reading:

  • James Madison, Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787, June 26, June 29-30, July 2, July 5, and July 16

Session Six(95:39 minutes)

RealAudio:Click Here to Listen

HelpListening

Session 6 with Professor Lloyd: 4:30 pm – 6:00 pm (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: Constitutional Convention III: Drafting the Constitution

Focus:How does the Committee on Detail Report differ from the original and amended Virginia Plans? Did the delegates let “experience be their guide”? What powers and what rights did the delegates suggest be enumerated? How did the slavery provisions undergo changes during the deliberations? Why did Randolph decide against signing the Constitution? What happened to Mason’s bill of rights proposal?

Reading:

  • James Madison, Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787, August 6, August 13, August 22, August 24-25, September 6, September 10, and September 12.

Wednesday, June 26

Session Seven(77:43 minutes)

RealAudio:Click Here to Listen

HelpListening

Session 7 with Professor Lloyd: 9:00 am -10:30 am (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: How to Read the Constitution

Focus:What traditional features of republicanism and federalism as revealed in The Articles of Confederation and state constitutions are present in the constitution? Where do the states fit into the Constitution? What changes and similarities do you see when comparing the Constitution to the plans that were presented at the Convention? Is the language of the Constitution vague or clear?

Reading:

Session Eight(97:44 minutes)

RealAudio:Click Here to Listen

HelpListening

Session 8 with Professor Flannery: 10:50 am – 12:20 pm (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic:How to Read The Federalist

Focus: Why is it important to read The Federalist? What kind of a book is The Federalist? What is the audience of The Federalist? What does The Federalist try to accomplish? What is the structure of the argument of The Federalist? What is the place of “moderation” in Publius’s argument? To what extent is the new constitution founded on “reflection and choice,” to what extent on “accident and force”? (What are the defects of the Confederation, according to Publius? Why is there “an absolute necessity for an entire change in the first principles of the system”? How did the proposed union provide necessary protection against external and internal dangers? What is the “utility of the Union” according to The Federalist? What are the “objects” of the proposed Union, according to Publius?)

Reading:

  • The Federalist, especially 1, 9, 10, 14, 15, 23, 36

Thursday, June 27

Session Nine(88:24 minutes)

RealAudio:Click Here to Listen

HelpListening

Session 9 with Professor Flannery: 9:00 am -10:30 am (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: The Federalist, continued

Focus: What “inducements to candor” and to the “spirit of moderation” does Publius present in Federalist 37-38? What are “the distinctive characters of the Republican form,” according to Publius in Federalist 39? How is the proposed government both federal and national according to Publius in Federalist 39? How, in Federalist 40, does Publius answer the question of “how far the convention were authorized to propose such a government”? How, in Federalist 43, does Publius defend the Convention’s proposal to supersede the Confederation “without the unanimous consent of the parties to it”? (Is there any place, any need, or any provision for civic virtue in The Federalist plan of government? What is the role of self-interest and passion as opposed to public-spirit and reason in The Federalist frame of government?)

Reading:

  • The Federalist, especially 37, 38, 39, 40, 43.

Session Ten(87:46 minutes)

RealAudio:Click Here to Listen

HelpListening

Session 10 with Professor Lloyd: 10:50 am – 12:20 pm (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: The Federalist, concluded

Focus: Does Madison reject or adhere to Montesquieu’s understanding of the separation of powers? What is the Antifederalist critique of the structure and powers of the House? Do you find Madison’s response persuasive? What does Madison mean by the “cool and deliberate sense of the community”? Is Hamilton convincing in his defense of a vigorous executive and an independent judiciary?

Reading

  • The Federalist, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 55, 63, 70, 71, 78
  • Brutus essays (The Essential Antifederalist)

Lesson Planning Session(81:31 minutes)

RealAudio:Click Hereto Listen

HelpListening

Lesson Planning Session with Professor Schramm: 4:00 pm – 6:00 pm (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Friday, June 28

Session Eleven(90:51 minutes)

RealAudio:Click Here to Listen

HelpListening

Session 11 with Professor Lloyd: 9:00 am -10:30 am (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: Ratification

Focus: What is the enduring significance of the nine month campaign to secure ratification of the Constitution? Just how closely did the Constitution come to not being ratified? Who were the main actors in the ratification struggle and what were their arguments? Why did James Madison agree to introduce a Bill of Rights in the First Congress? What were the arguments in favor and against the adoption of the Bill of Rights? How reliable are the original documents surrounding ratification and the adoption of the Bill of Rights?

Reading:

  • State Ratifying Conventions (The Essential Bill of Rights, p. 301-319)
  • James Wilson, October 6, 1787 Speech (The Essential Bill of Rights, p. 283-286)
  • The Federalist, 84
  • Jefferson-Madison Correspondence (The Essential Bill of Rights, p. 319-324)
  • Handout, Ratification of the Constitution (Download Adobe PDF or Microsoft Word)

Session Twelve(92:40 minutes)

RealAudio:Click Here to Listen

HelpListening

Session 12 with Professor Lloyd: 10:50 am – 12:20 pm (Seminar Room, Founders Hall)

Topic: Bill of Rights

Focus: How did Madison propose to adopt “moderate” and “proper” amendments that would not alter the structure and power of the newly formed government? Did Madison and Jefferson change their minds concerning the importance of a Bill of Rights? Why did Sherman urge that the Bill of Rights be attached to the end of the original constitution and why did Madison object to this strategy? What changes were made to Madison’s June 8 proposals?

Reading

  • Jefferson-Madison Correspondence (The Essential Bill of Rights, p. 324-331)
  • James Madison Speech, June 8, 1789 (The Essential Bill of Rights, p. 331-344)
  • Time-line from The Essential Antifederalist.
  • Congressional History of the Bill of Rights (The Essential Bill of Rights, p. 344-357)

Get Email Updates

TeachingAmericanHistory.org is a project of the Ashbrook Center at Ashland University

401 College Avenue | Ashland, Ohio 44805 (419) 289-5411 | (877) 289-5411 (Toll Free)

info@TeachingAmericanHistory.org