Progressivism and the Origins of 20th Century Politics Sunday, August 3, 2003 to Friday, August 8, 2003 Ashland University, Ashland, Ohio

Instructors: Ronald J. Pestritto and Lance Robinson

Readings

  • Theodore Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelt: An Autobiography (DeCapo Press, 1988)
  • Mario Denunzio, ed., Theodore Roosevelt: An American Mind: A Selection from His Writings (Penguin Reprint, 1995)
  • Woodrow Wilson, Constitutional Government in the United States, ed. Pearson (Transaction Reprint, 2002)
  • Woodrow Wilson, Congressional Government (Peter Smith, 1973)
  • Herbert Croly, Progressive Democracy, ed. Pearson (Transaction reprint, 1998)
  • Kesler/Rossiter, eds., The Federalist Papers (Mentor, 1999)
  • Photocopied packet of readings

Schedule

Sunday, August 3

Session One(01:42 minutes)

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2:00 pm – 4:00 pm: Check into Apartments (Senior Apartments, Ashland University)

5:00 pm – 6:00 pm: Dinner (Heritage Room, Myers Convocation Center, Ashland University)

6:00 pm – 7:00 pm: Introduction to Ashbrook Teacher Institutes with Peter Schramm (Heritage Room, Myers Convocation Center, Ashland University)

7:45 pm – 9:15 pm: Session 1 with Professors Pestritto & Robinson (Ashbrook Center, 8th Floor, Ashland University Library)

    Topic/Focus: Overview of the evolution of American political thought. What are the basic characteristics of the political thought of the American founding? How are the principles of progressivism different from those of the founding? What is it about the founding that progressives found most objectionable?

Monday, August 4

Session Two(01:33 minutes)

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9:00 am – 10:30 am: Session 2 with Professors Pestritto & Robinson (Ashbrook Center, AU Library)

Topic/Focus: Introduction to historical thinking. From what sources did the progressives learn their political ideas? How were progressives educated, and how did their education affect their political arguments?

Readings:

  • G.W.F. Hegel, Preface to the Philosophy of Right (packet)
  • Walter Bagehot, selections from Physics and Politics (packet)
  • Herbert Spencer, selections from Social Statics and Social Dynamics (packet)
  • William Graham Sumner, selections from What Social Classes Owe to Each Other (packet)

Session Three(01:24 minutes)

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10:50 am – 12:15 pm: Session 3 with Professor Pestritto (Ashbrook Center, AU Library)

Topic/Focus: The historical thinking of Woodrow Wilson. What does Wilson believe is wrong with the political theory of the founders? Why, in particular, does he think it a bad idea to ground a regime on the doctrine of natural rights? What’s wrong with the Declaration of Independence?

Readings:

  • Woodrow Wilson, The State, chs. 1-2 (packet)
  • Wilson, “The Authors & Signers of the Declaration of Independence” (packet

Session Four(01:34 minutes)

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4:30 pm – 6:00 pm: Session 4 with Professor Robinson (Ashbrook Center, AU Library)

Topic/Focus: The historical thinking of Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin Roosevelt. Do the foundational principles of government remain the same throughout the ages, or do the ends of government evolve as history moves forward? Can a political regime grow? How do TR and FDR employ an evolutionary understanding of the state in their political arguments?

Readings:

  • Theodore Roosevelt, “National Life & Character” (packet)
  • TR, The Winning of the West, Chapter One, (DiNunzio)
  • TR, “Social Evolution” (packet)
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt, Commonwealth Club Address (packet)
  • FDR, 209th Press Conference, on the Schechter Case Decision (packet) Recommended for this session or for further study:

Supplemental/Optional Readings:

Guest Lecture(01:23 minutes)

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7:30 pm – 9:30 pm: Guest Lecture with Dr. Gary Quinlivan (Professor of Economics and Dean of the McKenna School, Saint Vincent College) (Ashbrook Center, AU Library)

Tuesday, August 5

Session Five(01:29 minutes)

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9:00 am – 10:30 am: Session 5 with Professor Pestritto (Ashbrook Center, AU Library)

    Topic/Focus: Social Gospel and the Progressive Movement. How was progressivism related to the important religious movements of the day? What was the stance of progressivism with regard to traditional religious faith? What were the key tenets of the Social Gospel movement?

    Reading:

    • Walter Rauschenbusch, selections from Christianizing the Social Order (packet)

Session Six(01:30 minutes)

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10:50 am – 12:20 pm: Session 6 with Professor Robinson (Ashbrook Center, AU Library)

Topic/Focus: TR, John Dewey, and the evolving Constitution. Where does the American founding fit in within the tradition of liberal thought? Where does progressivism fit within that tradition? How ought the Constitution be interpreted?

Reading:

  • John Dewey, Liberalism and Social Action (packet)
  • TR, “The Ideals of Washington” (packet)
  • TR, “The Formation of the National Constitution,” from Gouverneur Morris (DiNunzio)
  • TR, Autobiography, Ch XII “The Big Stick and the Square Deal”

Session Seven(01:27 minutes)

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4:30 pm – 6:00 pm: Session 7 with Professor Pestritto (Ashbrook Center, AU Library)

Topic/Focus: Progressivism and the separation of powers. What is the purpose of the separation of powers system? Does it serve to hinder or help government in carrying out its basic functions? What was the view of progressives toward the separation of powers?

Reading:

  • Wilson, Division and Reunion, 69-84 (packet)
  • Wilson, The New Freedom, ch. 1 (packet)
  • Wilson, Constitutional Government, 1-26

Wednesday, August 6

Session Eight(01:28 minutes)

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9:00 am -10:30 am: Session 8 with Professor Pestritto (Ashbrook Center, AU Library)

Topic/Focus: Wilson and the reform of Congress. What is the function of a legislature in a democratic society? Does Wilson believe that the American Congress functions as it ought to? What proposals for change does Wilson make?

Reading:

  • Wilson, Congressional Government, 57-80, 193-215

Session Nine(01:32 minutes)

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10:50 am – 12:20 pm: Session 9 with Professor Robinson (Ashbrook Center, AU Library)

Topic/Focus: TR, Herbert Croly, and the movement for direct democracy. What were the various proposals that progressives put forward for direct democracy? What was the relationship between progressive thought and mechanisms such as the ballot initiative, referendum, and recall? Why did progressives differ on the question of direct democracy?

Reading:

  • TR, “The Right of the People to Rule” (packet)
  • TR, “A Charter of Democracy” (packet)
  • Herbert Croly, Progressive Democracy, 245-83

Supplemental/Optional Readings:

  • TR, “The College Graduate and Public Life” (packet)

Session Ten(01:26 minutes)

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4:30 pm – 6:00 pm: Session 10 with Professors Pestritto & Robinson (Ashbrook Center, AU Library)

Topic/Focus: Progressivism, skepticism, and the judiciary. What should the role of the courts be in the progressive vision of American politics? How should courts interpret the Constitution? How did the progressive vision for the courts manifest itself in the important judicial decisions of the 20th century?

Reading

  • Wilson, Constitutional Government, ch. 6
  • Oliver Wendell Holmes, “Natural Law” (packet)
  • Holmes, dissent in Lochner v. New York (1905) (packet)
  • Louis Brandeis, dissent in Liggett v. Lee (1933) (packet)
  • TR, “The Recall of Judicial Decisions” (packet)

Lesson Planning(00:00 minutes)

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7:30 pm – 9:30 pm: Seminar on Lesson Planning with Master Teacher (Ashbrook Center, AU Library)

Thursday, August 7

Session Eleven(01:37 minutes)

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9:00 am -10:30 am: Session 11 with Professors Pestritto & Robinson (Ashbrook Center, AU Library)

Topic/Focus: The reform of the party system. What changes did progressives want to make to the party system? From the perspective of the progressives, what was wrong with the traditional party system? What were the differences between Wilson, TR, and Croly over what ought to be done with the party system?

Reading:

  • Wilson, Constitutional Government, ch. 8
  • Wilson, “Government By Debate” excerpt (packet)
  • Wilson, “Wanted – A Party” (packet)
  • Croly, Progressive Democracy, 330-48
  • Progressive Party, 1912 Platform (packet)
  • TR, “The Republican Record and Popular Rule” (packet)
  • TR, “The Purpose of the Progressive Party” (packet)
  • TR, “The Heirs of Abraham Lincoln” (packet)
  • The New Republic, “The Future of the Two-Party System” (packet)
  • The New Republic, “The Archaic Two-Party System” (packet)

Session Twelve(01:33 minutes)

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10:50 am – 12:20 pm: Session 12 with Professors Pestritto & Robinson (Ashbrook Center, AU Library)

Topic/Focus: The presidency and popular leadership. What role do TR and Wilson believe the presidency ought fill? What do they believe are the important qualities for a president? How have TR and Wilson helped to shape the modern presidency? What is the relationship between their view of the presidency and the general tenets of progressive thought?

Reading

  • Wilson, Constitutional Government, ch. 3
  • Wilson, “Leaders of Men” (packet)
  • TR, Autobiography, ch. 10: “The Presidency”
  • TR, “The Presidency”, 1901 (packet)

Art of Teaching(01:13 minutes)

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4:30 pm – 6:00 pm: Seminar on the Art of Teaching with Peter Schramm (Ashbrook Center, AU Library)

Guest Lecture(01:35 minutes)

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7:30 pm – 9:30 pm: Guest Lecture with Dr. Charles Kesler (Professor of Government and Director of the Salvatori Center, Claremont McKenna College) (Ashbrook Center, AU Library)

    Topic/Focus: “The Three Waves of Liberalism”

Friday, August 8

Session Thirteen(00:00 minutes)

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9:00 am -10:30 am: Session 13 with Professors Pestritto & Robinson (Ashbrook Center, AU Library)

Topic/Focus: National Administrative Power. What role did the progressives envision for federal administrative agencies? How much independence should such agencies have from the political branches of government? How much power should such agencies have to regulate private economic activity? How did Wilson and TR differ on this question?

Reading:

Session Fourteen(00:00 minutes)

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10:50 am – 12:20 pm: Session 14 with Professors Pestritto & Robinson (Ashbrook Center, AU Library)

Topic/Focus: The “New Freedom” vs. the “New Nationalism” in the 1912 election. Wilson and TR were both prominent progressives – so why did they oppose one another in 1912? What were the main issues of the 1912 race? What can we learn from the 1912 campaign about the general tenets of progressivism?

Reading

  • Wilson, Address to the New York Press Club, 9/9/1912 (packet)
  • TR, “Limitation of Government Power” (packet)
  • TR, “How I Became a Progressive” (packet)
  • TR, “The Stricken Standard-Bearer” (packet)
  • TR, “The Future of the Progressive Party” (packet)
  • Croly, Progressive Democracy, 1-28

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