Elliot’s Debates: Volume 1

Digest of the Constitution

House. (See Senate.)    To be exempt from the quartering of soldiers in any house, in time of peace, without the consent of the owner; and in time of war, unless prescribed by law  3  To be secure from unreasonable searches and seizures  4  To be free, except in the army, navy, and militia, from answering for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on presentment or indictment of a grand jury  5  Not to be jeopardized twice for the same offence  5  Not to be compelled, in criminal cases, to be a witness against himself  5  Not to be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due course of law  5   Private property shall not be taken for public use, without just compensation  5

Art. Sec.
Acts, records, and judicial proceedings of each state, entitled to faith and credit in other states 4 1
Amendments to the Constitution, how made 5
Appropriations by law. – (See Treasury.) 1 9
Attainder, bill of, prohibited 1 9
Attainder of treason shall not work corruption of blood or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted 3 3
Bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives 1 7
Before they become laws, shall be passed by both houses, and approved by the President; or, if disapproved, shall be passed by two thirds of each house 1 7
Bills not returned in ten days, unless an adjournment intervene, shall be considered as approved 1 7
Capitation Tax. – (See Tax.) 1 9
Census, or enumeration, to be made every ten years 1 2
Claims of the United States, or of the several states, not to be prejudiced by any construction of the Constitution 4 3
Citizens of each state shall be entitled to the privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states 4 2
Commerce, regulations respecting, to be equal and uniform 1 9
Congress, vested with legislative power 1 1
May alter the regulations of state legislatures concerning elections of senators and representatives, except as to place of choosing senators 1 4
Shall assemble once every year 1 4
May provide for cases of removal of President and Vice-President 2 1
May determine the time of choosing electors of President and Vice-President 2 1
May invest the appointment of inferior officers in the President alone, in the courts of law, or the heads of departments 2 2
May from time to time establish courts inferior to the Supreme Court 3 1
May (with one limitation) declare the punishment of treason 3 3
May prescribe the manner of proving the acts, records, and judicial proceedings of each state 4 1
The assent of required to the formation of a new state within the jurisdiction of any other, or by the junction of two or more 4 3
May propose amendments to the Constitution, or, on application, call a convention 5
The assent of required to the admission of new states into the Union 4 3
To lay and collect duties on imposts and excises 1 8
To borrow money 1 8
To regulate commerce 1 8
To establish uniform laws of bankruptcy and naturalization 1 8
To coin money, regulate the value of coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures 1 8
To punish counterfeiting 1 8
To establish post-offices and post-roads 1 8
To authorize patents to authors and inventors 1 8
To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court 1 8
To define and punish piracies, felonies on the high seas, and offences against the laws of nations 1 8
To declare war, grant letters of marque, and make rules concerning captures 1 8
To raise and support armies 1 8
To provide and maintain a navy 1 8
To make rules for the government of the army and navy 1 8
To call for the militia in certain cases 1 8
To organize, arm, and discipline, the militia 1 8
To exercise exclusive legislation over ten miles square 1 8
To pass laws necessary to carry the enumerated powers into effect 1 8
To dispose of, and make rules concerning, the territory or other property of the United States 4 3
Constitution, formed by the people of the United States, Preamble
How amended 5
And the laws under it, and treaties, declared to be the supreme law 6
Rendered operative by the ratification of the Conventions of nine states 7
Conventions, for proposing amendments to the Constitution 5
Court, Supreme, its orginal and appellate jurisdiction 3 2
Courts, inferior to the Supreme Court, may be ordained by Congress 3 1
Crimes, persons accused of, fleeting from justice, may be demanded 4 2
Debts against the Confederation to be valid against the United States under this Constitution 6
Duties on exports prohibited 1 9
On imports and exports, imposed by states, shall enure to the treasury of the United States 1 10
Elections, of senators and representatives, shall be prescribed by the state legislatures, as to time, place, and manner 1 4
Qualifications and returns of members of Congress to be determined by each house 1 5
Electors of President and Vice-President, how chosen, and their duties 2 1
and 12th amendment 2 1
Shall vote the same day, throughout the United States 2 1
No senator or representative, holding office under the United States, shall serve as 2 1
Enumeration (See Census.) 1 2
Executive power shall be vested in a President 2 1
(See President.)
Exports. (See Tax)
And imports, duties on by states to be payable into the treasury of the United States 1 10
Ex post facto Law, none shall be passed 1 9
Habeas Corpus, writ of, can only be suspended in cases of rebellion or invasion 1 9
House of Representatives. (See Representatives.)
Impeachment, all civil officers liable to 2 4
Persons found guilty by, liable to indictment and punishment for the offence 1 3
Importation of Slaves, until prohibited, a duty authorized on, after 1808 1 9
Judges shall hold their offices during good behavior 3 1
The compensations of, shall not be diminished during continuance in office 3 1
Judical power, vested in a Supreme Court and courts inferior 3 1
The cases to which it extends 3 2
Judicial Proceedings, records, and acts of each state, are entitled to faith and credit in every other state 4 1
Jury trial shall be held in the state where the crime shall have been committed 3 2
If the crime have not been committed within a state, the trial shall be held at the place Congress shall have directed 3 2
Jury, trial by, secured, in prosecutions for all crimes, except in cases of impeachment 3 2
And in suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars. 7th amendment 3 2
Law, supreme, the Constitution, the laws under it, and treaties declared to be 6
Legislative powers vested in Congress. (See Congress.) 1 1
Money shall be drawn from the treasury only by laws appropriating 1 9
Nobility, titles of, shall not be granted by the United States 1 9
Officers of the Senate, except their president, shall be chosen by the Senate 1 3
Civil, may be removed by impeachment 2 4
Orders of one house, requiring the concurrence of the other. (See Resolution,) 1 7
Persons held liable to labor or service, their importation or migration into the United States may be prohibited after 1808 1 9
Escaping from one state into another, shall be delivered up to those entitled to service 4 2
Powers not delegated are reserved to the people, or, when not prohibited, to the states, 10th amendment
Legislative. (See Congress,) 1 1
Executive. (See President.) 2 1
Judicial. (See Judicial.) 3 1
Presents, emoluments, office, or title from, a foreign king, prince, or state, to persons holding offices of profit or trust, proibited 1 9
President of the United States, vested with the executive power, shall be chosen for four years 2 1
How elected 2 1
Qualifications for 2 1
Compensation for 2 1
Shall take the oath of office 2 1
May be removed by impeachment 2 4
President of the United States, powers of —
Shall be commander-in-chief of the army and navy 2 2
May require the written opinions of the heads of departments 2 2
May reprieve and pardon 2 2
May make treaties, with the consent of the Senate 2 2
May appoint to office, with consent of the Senate 2 2
Shall fill up vacancies happening during the recess of the Senate 2 2
President of the United States, duties of —
Shall give information to Congress, amd recommend measures 2 3
May convene both houses, or either house 2 3
May adjourn them in case of disagreement 2 3
Shall recieve ambassadors and other public ministers 2 3
Shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed 2 3
Shall commission all officers of the United States 2 3
In case of death, &c., shall devovle on the Vice-President, and on such other officer as may be provided by law 2 1
Privileges and immunities of citizens of state. (See Citizens)
Property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation 5th amendment
Quorum, what shall be, for business 1 5
Of states, in choosing a President by the House of Representatives 2 1
Receipts and expeditures, accounts of, to be published 1 9
Records. (See Judicial Proceedings.) 4 1
Representative, House of, composed of members chosen every second year 1 2
Qualifications of the electors of its members 1 2
Qualifications of members 1 2
Shall not exceed one for 30,000 1 2
Shall choose its speaker and other officers 1 2
Shall have the power of impeachment 1 2
Shall be the judge of the returns, elections, and qualifications of its members 1 5
What shall be a quorum of 1 5
Any number may adjourn, and compel the attendance of absentees 1 5
May determine the rules of proceeding 1 5
May punish or expel a member 1 5
Shall keep a journal, an publish the same, except the parts requiring secrecy 1 5
Shall not adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place, without the consent of the Senate 1 5
One fifth of present may require the yeas and nays 1 5
Shall originate bills for raising revenue 1 7
Shall recieve a compensation, to be ascertain by law 1 6
Privileged from arrest druing attendance, and in going and returning, except in certain cases 1 6
Privileged from arrest druing attendance, and in going and returning, except in certain cases 1 6
Shall not be questioned elsewhere for any speech or debate in the house 1 6
Shall not be appointed to the offices created, or whose compensations shall have been increased, during the time for which they are elected 1 6
Can, whilst serving, hold no office under the United States 1 6
Shall not serve as primary electors of President 2 1
Representatives and direct taxes apportioned according to numbers 1 2
Representation of a state, vacancies in, supplied until a new election by the executive authority thereof 1 2
Resolution, order, or vote, requiring the concurrence of both houses (except for an adjournment,) shall be presented to the President, and undergo the formalities of bills 1 7
Revenue. (See Vessels.)
Rights of the citizens declared to be — 1
Liberty of conscience in matters of religion, Amendment 1
Freedom of speech and of the press 1
To assemble and petition 1
To keep and bear arms 2
That the accused, in criminal prosecutions, shall enjoy the right of a speedy public trial by an impartial jury of the vicinage; and the means necessary for his defence 6
That, in civil cases, facts tried by a jury shall only be reexamined according to the rules of the common law 7
That in suits at common law, where the value shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved 7
That excessive bail shall not be required, excessive fines imposed, not cruel or unusual punishments inflicted 8
That the enumeration of certain rights shall not operate constructively against the retained rights 9
Rules, each house shall determine its own 1 5
Senate of the United States, composed of two senators from each state 1 3
How chosen, classed, and terms of service 1 3
Qualifications of members, thirty years of age, nine years a citizen,and an inhabitant of the state 1 3
Shall choose its officers, except the President 1 3
Shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications, of its members 1 5
What numbers shall be a quorum 1 5
Any number may adjourn, and compel attendance of absentees 1 5
May determine its rules 1 5
May punish or expel a member 1 5
Shall keep a journal, and publish the same, except parts requiring secrecy 1 5
Shall not adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other plate, without the consent of the other house 1 5
One fifth of present may require the yeas and nays 1 5
May propose amendments to bills for raising revenue 1 7
Shall try impeachments 1 3
Their judgments only to extend to removal from office, and to disqualify for any other 1 3
Members shall recieve a compensation, to be ascertained by law 1 6
Privileged from arrest 1 6
Shall not be questioned elsewhere for any speech or debate in the house 1 6
Shall not be appointed to offices of the United States created, or whose emoluments shall have been increased, during the terms for which they were created 1 6
Senators and Representatives, elections of, how prescribed 1 4
Slaves. (See Persons held to service.)
Senator shall notbe an elector of President 2 1
Speaker, how chosen 1 2
States prohibited from —
Entering into any treaty, alliance, or confederation 1 10
Granting letters of marque 1 10
Coining money 1 10
Emitting bills of credit 1 10
Making any thing a tender but gold and silver coin 1 10
States prohibited from —
Passing bills of attainder, ex post facto laws, or laws impairing contracts 1 10
Granting titles of nobility 1 10
Laying imposts, or duties on imports and exports, for their own use 1 10
Laying duties on tonnage without the consent of Congress 1 10
Entering into any contract or agreement with another state, or a foreign power 1 10
Engaging in war, unless invaded or in imminent danger 1 10
States, new, may be admitted into the Union 4 3
May be formed within the jurisdiction of others, or by the junction of two or more, with the consent of Congress and the legislatures concerned 4 3
States, judges of, bound to consider the treaties, the Constitution, and the laws under it, as supreme 6
States, majority of all, necessary to the choice of President 2 1
State, each, to be guarantied a republican form of government; protected against invasion; and secured, upon application, against domestic violence 4 4
Tax, capitation or direct shall be laid only in proportion to census 1 9
Tax on exports from a state prohibited 1 9
Taxes, direct, shall be apportioned according to representation 1 2
Territory, or property belonging to the United States, Congress may make rules concerning 4 3
Test, religious, shall not be required 1
Titles. (See Nobility.) 1 9
Title, from the foreign state. (See Presents.) 1 9
Treason, defined, 3 3
Two witnesses, or confession, necessary for conviction 3 3
Punishments of, may be prescribed by Congress with one limitation 3 3
Treason, or other crime, persons charged with in one state, fleeing into another, shall, on demand, be delivered up 4 2
Treasury, money drawn from only by appropriation 1 9
Treaties, the supreme law 6 1
Vacancies happening during recess of the Senate may be filled temporarily by the President 2 2
In representation in Congress, how filled 1 2
Vessels to enter, clear, and pay duties in the states in which they arrive, or from which they depart 1 9
Vice-President of the United States —
To be President of the Senate, except when exercising the office of President of the United States 1 3
How elected 2 1
Qualifications for. 12th amendment
Shall, in certain cases, discharge the duties of President 2 1
May be removed by impeachment 2 4
Vote of one house requiring concurrence of the other 1 7
Warrants for searches and seizures, when and how they shall issue. 4th amendment 4
Witness, in criminal cases, no one compelled to be against himself. 5th amendment 5

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Contents

General Overview

In 1787 and 1788, following the Constitutional Convention, a great debate took place throughout America over the Constitution that had been proposed.

In-Doors Debate

View in-depth studies of the Massachusetts, Virginia, and New York state ratifying conventions.

The Federal Pillars

View drawings of the federal pillars rising published by the Massachusetts Centinel during the ratification debate.

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The Stages of Ratification: An Interactive Timeline

View the six stages of the ratification of the Constitution with links to many other features on this site.

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Interactive Ratification Map

View interactive maps showing the breakdown of Federalist-Antifederalist strength at the state level during the Ratification debate.

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