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Elliot’s Debates: Volume 5

Appendix to the Debates of the Federal Convention

No. 1.

See page 125.

Letter from James M. Varnum, of Rhode Island, to the President of the Convention, enclosing the subjoined Communication, from certain Citizens of Rhode Island, to the Federal Convention.

Note. — The following letter from Rhode Island to the Convention was intended to have been delivered by Gen. VARNUM, who had, however, left Philadelphia before its arrival. On his return to Rhode Island, he wrote the letter enclosing it.

Newport, June 18, 1787.

Sir,— The enclosed address, of which I presume your Excellency has received a duplicate, was returned to me, from New York, after my arrival in this state. I flattered myself that our legislature, which convened on Monday last, would have receded from the resolution therein referred to, and have complied with the recommendation of Congress in sending delegates to the Federal Convention. The upper House, or governor and council, embraced the measure; but it was negatived in the House of Assembly by a large majority, notwithstanding that the greatest exertions were made to support it.

Being disappointed in their expectations. the minority in the administration, and all the worthy citizens of this state whose minds are well informed, regretting the peculiarities of their situation, place their fullest confidence in the wisdom and moderation of the national council, and indulge the warmest hopes of being favorably considered in their deliberations. From these deliberations they anticipate a political system which must finally be adapted, and from which will result the safety, the honor, and the happiness, of the United States.

Permit me, sir, to observe, that the measures of our present legislature do not exhibit the real character of the state. They are equally reprobated and abhorred by gentlemen of the learned professions, by the whole mercantile body and by most of the respectable farmers and mechanics. The majority of the administration is composed of a licentious number of men, destitute of education, and many of them void of principle. From anarchy and confusion they derive their temporary consequence; and this they endeavor to prolong by debauching the minds of the common people, whose attention is wholly directed to the abolition of debts, public and private. With these are associated the disaffected of every description, particularly those who were unfriendly during the war. Their paper money system, founded in oppression and fraud, they are determined to support at every hazard; and, rather than relinquish their favorite pursuit, they trample upon the most sacred obligations. As a proof of this they refused to comply with a requisition of Congress for repealing all laws repugnant to the treaty of peace with Great Britain, and urged, as their principal reason, that it would be calling in question the propriety of their former measures.

These may be attributed partly to the extreme freedom of our constitution, and partly to the want of energy in the Federal Union; and it is greatly to be apprehended that they cannot speedily be removed, but by uncommon and very serious exertions. It is fortunate, however, that the wealth and resources of this state are chiefly in possession of the well-affected, and that they are entirely devoted to the public good.

I have the honor of being, sir, With the greatest veneration and esteem, Your Excellency’s very obedient and most humble servant,*

[Note *: * The signing was omitted through inadvertence, but the letter was from Gen. Varnum. 73 49]

His Excellency, Gen. Washington.

Letter from certain Citizens of Rhode Island to the Federal Convention, enclosed in the preceding.

Providence, May 11, 1787.

Gentlemen,—Since the legislature of this state have finally declined sending delegates to meet you in Convention, for the purposes mentioned in the resolve of Congress of the 21st February, 1787, the merchants, tradesmen, and others, of this place, deeply affected with the evils of the present unhappy times, have thought proper to communicate in writing their approbation of your meeting, and their regret that it will fall short of a complete representation of the Federal Union.

The failure of this state was owing to the non-concurrence of the upper House of Assembly with a vote passed in the lower House, for appointing delegates to attend the said Convention, at their session holden at Newport, on the first Wednesday of the present month.

It is the general opinion here, and, we believe, of the well-informed throughout this state, that full power for the regulation of the commerce of the United States, both foreign and domestic, ought to be vested in the national council, and that effectual arrangements should also be made for giving operation to the present powers of Congress in their requisitions for national purposes.

As the object of this letter is chiefly to prevent any impression unfavorable to the commercial interest of the state from taking place in our sister states, from the circumstance of our being unrepresented in the present national Convention, we shall not presume to enter into any detail of the objects we hope your deliberations will embrace and provide for, being convinced they will be such as have a tendency to strengthen the union, promote the commerce, increase the power, and establish the credit, of the United States.

The result of your deliberations, tending to these desirable purposes, we still hope may finally be approved and adopted by this state, for which we pledge our influence and best exertions.

[* This will be delivered you by the Hon. JAMES M. VARNUM, Esq., who will communicate (with your permission) in person, more particularly, our sentiments on the subject matter of our address.] [Note *: * This paragraph was in the letter enclosed by Gert, Varnum, but not in the duplicate alluded to by his letter.]

In behalf of the merchants, tradesmen, &c., we have the honor, &c. &c.

(Signed)

John Brown,

Joseph Nightingale,

Levil Hall,

Philip Allen,

Paul Allen,

Jabez Bowen,

Nicholas Brown,

John Jinkes,

Welcome Arnold,

William Russell,

Jeremiah Olney,

William Barton,

Thomas Lloyd Halsey,

Committee

The Honorable the Chairman of the General Convention, Philadelphia.

No. 2.

See page 129.

Note of Mr. Madison to the Plan of Charles Pinckney, May 29, 1787.

The length of the document laid before the Convention, and other circumstances, having prevented the taking of a copy at the time, that which is inserted in the debates was taken from the paper furnished to the secretary of state, and contained in the Journal of the Convention published in 1819; which, it being taken for granted that it was a true copy, was not then examined. The coincidence in several instances between that and the Constitution, as adopted, having attracted the notice of others, was at length suggested to mine. On comparing the paper with the Constitution in its final form, or in some of its stages, and with the propositions and speeches of Mr. Pinckney in the Convention, it was apparent, that considerable error had crept into the paper, occasioned possibly by the loss of the document laid before the Convention, (neither that nor the resolution offered by Mr. Patterson being among the preserved papers,) and by a consequent resort for a copy to the rough draught, in which erasures and interlineations, following what passed in the Convention, might be confounded, in part at least, with the original text, and, after a lapse of more than thirty years, confounded also in the memory of the author.

There is in the paper a similarity in some cases, and an identity in others, with details, expressions, and definitions, the results of critical discussions and modification in the Convention, that could not have been anticipated.

Examples may be noticed in Article VIII, of the paper; which is remarkable also for the circumstance, that, whilst it specifies the functions of the President, no provision is contained in the paper for the election of such an officer, nor indeed for the appointment of any executive magistracy, notwithstanding the evident purpose of the author to provide an entire plan of a federal government.

Again, in several instances where the paper corresponds with the Constitution, it is at variance with the ideas of Mr. Pinckney, as decidedly expressed in his propositions, and in his arguments, the former in the Journal of the Convention, the latter in the report of its debates. Thus, in Article VIII of the paper, provision is made for removing the President by impeachment, when it appears that, in the Convention, on the 20th of July, he was opposed to any impeachability of the executive magistrate. In Article III., it is required that all money bills shall originate in the first branch of the legislature; which he strenuously opposed on the 8th of August, and again on the 11th of August. In Article V., members of each House are made ineligible to, as well as incapable of holding, any office under the Union, &.e., as was the case at one state of the Constitution,—a disqualification highly disapproved and opposed by him on the 14th of August.

A still more conclusive evidence of error in the paper is seen in Article III, which provides, as the Constitution does, that the first branch of the legislature shall be chosen y the people of the several states; whilst it appears that, on the 6th of June, according to previous notice, too, a few days only after the draught was laid before the Convention, its author opposed that mode of choice, urging and proposing, in place of it, an election by the legislatures of the several states.

The remarks here made, though not material in themselves, were due to the authenticity and accuracy aimed at in this record of the proceedings of a public body so much an object, sometimes, of curious research as at all times of profound interest.*

[Note *: * Striking discrepancies will be found on a comparison of his plan as furnished to Mr. Adams, and the view given of that which was laid before the the Convention, in a pamphlet published by Francis Childs, at New York, shortly after the close of the Convention. The title of the pamphet Observation on the plan of government submitted to the Federal Convention on the twenty-eight of May, 1789, by Charles Pinckney,” &c. A copy is preserved among the “Selected Tracts,” in the library of the Historical Society of New York. But what conclusively proves that the choice of the House of Representatives by the people could not have been the choice in the lost paper, is a letter from Mr. Pinckney to James Madison, of the 28th of March, 1789, now on his files, in which he emphatically adheres to a choice by the state legislatures. The following is an extract: “Are you not, to use a full expression, abundantly convinced that the theoretical nonsense of an election of the member of Congress by the people, in the first instance, is clearly and practically wrong—that it will in the end be the means of bringing our councils into contempt—and that the legislatures [of the states] are the only proper judges of who ought to be elected?”]

No. 3.

Project communicated by Mr. E. Randolph, July 10, as an accommodating Proposition to small States.

See page 317.

I. Resolved, That in the second branch each state have one vote in the following cases:

1. In granting exclusive right to ports.

2. In subjecting vessels or seamen of the United States to tonnage duties, or other impositions.

3. In regulating the navigation of rivers.

4. In regulating the rights to be enjoyed by citizens of one state in the other states. 5. In questions arising in the guaranty of territory.

6. In declaring war, or taking measures for subduing a rebellion.

7. In regulating corn.

8. In establishing and regulating the post-office.

9. In the admission of new states into the Union.

10. In establishing rules for the government of the militia.

11. In raising a regular army.

12. In the appointment of the executive.

13. In fixing the seat of government.

That in all other cases the right of suffrage be proportioned according to an equitable rule of representation.

II. That, for the determination of certain important questions in the second branch, a greater number of votes than a mere majority be requisite.

III. That the people of each state ought to retain the perfect right of adopting, from time to time, such forms of republican government as to them may seem best, and of making all laws not contrary to the Articles of Union; subject to the supremacy of the general government in those instances only in which that supremacy shall be expressly declared by the Articles of the Union.

IV. That, although every negative giver, to the law of a particular state shall prevent its operation, any state may appeal to the national judiciary against a negative; and that such negative, if adjudged to be contrary to the powers granted by the Articles of the Union, shall be void.

V. That any individual, conceiving himself injured or oppressed by the partiality or injustice of a law of any particular state, may resort to the national judiciary, who may adjudge such law to be void, if found contrary to the principles of equity and justice.

No. 4.

Note to Speech of Mr. Madison of August 7, 1787, on the Right of Popular Suffrage.

See page 387.

As appointments for the general government here contemplated will, in part, be made by the state governments, all the citizens in states where the right of suffrage is not limited to the holders of property will have an indirect share of representation in the general government. But this does not satisfy the fundamental principle, that men cannot be justly bound by laws in making which they have no part Persons and property being both essential objects of government, the most that either can claim is such a structure of it as will leave a reasonable security for the other. And the most obvious provision, of this double character, seems to he that of confining to the holders of property—the object deemed least secure in popular governments—the right of suffrage for one of the two legislative branches. This is not without example among us; as well as other constitutional modifications, favoring the influence of property in the government. But the United States have not reached the stage of society in which conflicting feelings of the class with, and the class without, property, have the operation natural to them in countries fully peopled. The most difficult of all political arrangements is that of so adjusting the claims of the two classes as to give security to each, and to promote the welfare of all. The federal principle, which enlarges the sphere of power without departing from the elective basis of it, and controls in various ways the propensity in small republics to rash measures, and the facility of forming and executing them, will be found the best expedient yet tried for solving the problems.

Second Note to Speech of Mr. Madison of August 7, 1787.

These observations (see Debates in the Convention of 1787, August 7) do not convey the speaker’s more full and matured view of the subject, which is subjoined. He felt too much at the time the example of Virginia.

The right of suffrage is a fundamental article in republican constitutions. The regulation of it is, at the same time, a task of peculiar delicacy. Allow the right exclusively to property, and the rights of persons may be oppressed. The feudal polity along sufficiently proves it. Extend it equally to all, and the rights of property, or the claims of justice, may be overruled by a majority without property, or interested in measures of injustice. Of this, abundant proof is afforded by other popular governments and is not without examples in our own, particularly in the laws impairing the obligation of contracts.

In civilized communities, property, as well as personal rights, is an essential object of the laws, which encourage industry by securing the enjoyment of its fruits, that industry from which property results, and that enjoyment which consists, not merely in its immediate use, but in its posthumous destination to objects of choice and of kindred or affection.

In a just and a free government, therefore, the rights both of property and of persons ought to be effectually guarded. Will the former be so in case of a universal and equal suffrage? Will the latter be so in case of a suffrage confined to the holders of property?

As the holders of property have at stake all the other rights coalition to those without property, they may be the more restrained from infringing, as well as the less tempted to infringe, the rights of the latter. It is nevertheless certain that there are various ways in which the rich may oppress the poor; in which property may oppress liberty; and that the world is filled with examples. It is necessary that the poor should have a defence against the danger.

On the other hand, the danger to the holders of property cannot be disguised, if they be undefended against a majority without property. Bodies of men are not less swayed by interest than individuals, and are less controlled by the dread of reproach and the other motives felt by individuals. Hence the liability of the rights of property, and of the impartiality of laws affecting it, to be violated by legislative majorities having an interest, real or supposed, in the injustice: hence agrarian laws, and other levelling schemes: hence the cancelling or evading of debts, and other violations of contracts. We must not shut our eyes to the nature of man, nor to the light of experience. Who would rely on a fair decision from three individuals, if two had an interest in the case opposed to the rights of the third? Make the number as great as you please, the impartiality will not be increased, nor any further security against injustice be obtained, than what may result from the greater difficulty of uniting the wills of a greater number. In all governments there is a power which is capable of oppressive exercise. In monarchies and aristocracies, oppression proceeds from a want of sympathy and responsibility in the government towards the people. In popular governments, the danger lies in an undue sympathy among individuals composing a majority, and a want of responsibility in the majority to the minority. The characteristic excellence of the political system of the United States arises from a distribution and organization of its powers, which, at the same time that they secure the dependence of the government on the will of the nation, provide better guards than are found in any other popular government against interested combinations of a majority against the rights of a minority.

The United States have a precious advantage, also, in the actual distribution of property, particularly the landed property, and in the universal hope of acquiring property. This latter peculiarity is among the happiest contrasts in their situation to that of the old world, where no anticipated change in this respect can generally inspire a like sympathy with the rights of property. There may be at present a majority of the nation who are even freeholders, or the heirs or aspirants to freeholds, and the day may not be very near when such will cease to make up a majority of the community. But they cannot always so continue. With every admissible subdivision of the arable lands, a populousness not greater than that of England or France will reduce the holders to a minority. And whenever the majority shall be without landed or other equivalent property, and without the means or hope of acquiring it, what is to secure the rights of property against the danger from an equality and universality of suffrage, vesting complete power over property in hands without a share in it—not to speak of a danger in the mean time from a dependence of an increasing number on the wealth of a few? In other countries this dependence results—in some from the relations between landlords and tenants, in others both from that source and from the relations between wealthy capitalists and indigent laborers. In the United States, the occurrence must happen from the last source: from the connection between the great capitalists in manufactures and commerce, and the numbers employed by them. Nor will accumulations of capital for a certain time be precluded by our laws of descent and of distribution; such being the enterprise inspired by free institutions, that great wealth in the hands of individuals and associations may not be unfrequent. But it may be observed, that the opportunities may be diminished, and the permanency defeated, by the equalizing tendency of our laws.

No free country has ever been without parties, which are a natural offstring of freedom. An obvious and permanent division of every people is into the owners of the soil and the other inhabitants. In a certain sense, the country may be said to belong to the former. If each landholder has an exclusive property m his share, the body of landholders have an exclusive property in the whole. As the soil becomes subdivided, and actually cultivated by the owners, this view of the subject derives force from the principle of natural law which vests in individuals an exclusive right to the portions of ground with which they have incorporated their labor and improvements. Whatever may be the rights of others, derived from their birth in the country, from their interest in the highways and other tracts left open for common use, as well as in the national edifices and monuments, from their share in the public defence, and from their concurrent support of the government, it would seem unreasonable to extend the right so far as to give them, when become the majority, a power of legislation over the landed property without the consent of the proprietors. Some shield against the invasion of their rights Would not be out of place in a just and provident system of government. The principle of such an arrangement has prevailed in all governments where peculiar privileges or interests, held by a part, were to be secured against violation, and in the various associations where pecuniary or other property forms the stake. In the former case, a defensive right has been allowed; and if the arrangement be wrong, it is not in the defence, but in the kind of privilege to be defended. In the latter case, the shares of suffrage allotted to individuals have been, with acknowledged justice, apportioned more or less to their respective interests in the common stock.

These reflections suggest the expediency of such a modification of government as would give security to the part of the society having most at stake, and being most exposed to danger. These modifications present themselves.

1. Confining the right of suffrage to freeholders, and to such as hold an equivalent property, convertible of course into freeholds. The objection to this regulation is obvious. It violates the vital principle of free government, that those who are to be hound by laws ought to have a voice in making them. And the violation would be more strikingly unjust as the law-makers become the minority. The regulation would be as unpropitious, also, as it would be unjust. It would engage the numerical and physical force in a constant struggle against the public authority, unless kept down by a standing army fatal to all parties.

2. Confining the right of suffrage for one branch to the holders of property, and For the other branch to those without property. This arrangement, which would give a mutual defence where there might be mutual danger of encroachment, has an aspect of equality and fairness. But it would not be in fact either equal or fair, because the rights to be defended would be unequal, being on one side those of property as well as of persons, and on the other those of persons only. The temptation, also, to encroach, though in a certain degree mutual, would be felt more strongly on one side than on the other. It would be more likely to beget an abuse of the legislative negative, in extorting concessions at the expense of property, than the reverse. The division of the state into two classes, with distinct and independent organs of power, and without any intermingled agency whatever, might lead to contests and antipathies not dissimilar to those between the patricians and plebeians at Rome.

3. Confining the right of electing one branch of the legislature to freeholders, and admitting all others to a common right with holders of property in electing the other branch. This would give a defensive power to the holders of property, and to the class also without property, when becoming a majority of electors, without depriving them in the mean time of a participation in the public councils. If the holders of property would thus have a twofold share of representation, they would have at the same time a twofold stake in it—the rights of property as well as of persons, the twofold object of political institutions. And if no exact and safe equilibrium can be introduced, it is more reasonable that a preponderating Weight should be allowed to the greater interest than to the lesser. Experience alone can decide how far the practice in this case would accord with the theory. Such a distribution of the right of suffrage was tried in New York, and has been abandoned,—whether from experienced evils, or party calculations, may possibly be a question. It is still on trial in North Carolina,— with what practical indications, is not known. It is certain that the trial, to be satisfactory, ought to be continued for no inconsiderable period; until, in fact, the non-freeholders should be the majority.

4. Should experience or public opinion require an equal and universal suffrage for each branch of the government, such as prevails generally in the United States, a resource favorable to the right of the landed and other property, when its possessors become the minority, may be. Found in an enlargement of the election districts for one branch of the legislature, and a prolongation of its period of service. Large districts are manifestly favorable to the election of persons of general respectability, and of probable attachment to the fights of property, over competitors depending on the personal solicitation practicable on a contracted theatre. And, although an ambitious candidate, of personal distinction; might occasionally recommend himself to popular choice by espousing a popular though unjust object, it might rarely happen to many districts at the same time. The tendency of a longer period of service would be to render the body more stable in its policy, and more capable of stemming popular currents taking a wrong direction, till reason and justice could regain their ascendency.

5. Should even such a modification as the last be deemed inadmissible, and universal Suffrage, and very short periods of election, within contracted spheres, be required for each branch of the government, the security for the holders of property, when the minority, can only be derived from the ordinary influence possessed by property, and the superior information incident to its holders; from the popular sense of justice, enlightened and enlarged by a diffusive education; and from the difficulty of combining and effectuating unjust purposes throughout an extensive country,—a difficulty essentially distinguishing the United States, and even most of the individual states, from the small communities, where a mistaken interest, or contagious passion, could readily unite a majority of the whole, under a factious leader, in trampling on the rights of the minor party.

Under every view of the subject, it seems indispensable the mass of citizens should not be without a voice in making the laws which they are to obey, and in choosing the magistrates who are to administer them. And if the only alternative be between an equal and universal right of suffrage for each branch of the government, and a confinement of the entire right to a part of the citizens, it is better that those having the greater interest at stake—namely, that of property and persons both—should be deprived of half their share in the government, than that those having the lesser interest—that of personal rights only—should be deprived of the whole.

Third Note on the same Subject, during the Virginia Convention for amending the Constitution of the State, 1829—30.

The right of suffrage being of vital importance, and approving an extension of it to housekeepers and heads of families, I will suggest a few considerations which govern my judgement on the subject.

Were the Constitution on hand to be adapted to the present circumstances of our country, without taking into view the changes which time is rapidly producing, an unlimited extension of the right would probably vary little the character of our public councils or measures. But, as we are to prepare a system of government for a period which k is honed will be a long one, we must look to the prospective changes in the condition and composition of the society on which it is to act.

It is a law of nature, now well understood, that the earth, under a civilized cultivation, is capable of yielding subsistence for a large surplus of consumers beyond those having an immediate interest in the soil; a surplus which must increase with the increasing improvements in agriculture, and the labor-saying arts applied to it. And it is a lot of humanity, that of this surplus a large proportion is necessarily reduced, by a competition for employment, to wages which afford them the bare necessaries of life. The proportion being without property, or the hope of acquiring it, cannot be expected to sympathize sufficiently with its rights, to be safe depositaries of power over them.

What is to be done with this unfavored class of the community? If it be, on one hand, unsafe to admit them to a full share of political power, it must be recollected, on the other that it cannot be expedient to rest a republican government on a portion of society having a numerical and physical force excluded from and liable to be turned against it, and which would lead to a standing military force, dangerous to all parties, and to liberty itself.

This view of the subject makes it proper to embrace, in the partnership of power, every description of citizens having a sufficient stake in the public order and the stable administration of the laws; and particularly the housekeeper and heads of families; most of whom, “having given hostages to fortune, will have given them to their country also.

This portion of the community, added to those who, although not possessed of a share of the soil, are deeply interested in other species of property, and both of them added to the territorial proprietors, who in a certain sense may be regarded as the owners of the country itself, form the safest basis of free government. To the security for such a government, afforded by these combined numbers, may be further added the political and moral influence emanating from the actual possession of authority, and a just and beneficial exercise of it.

It would be happy if a state of society could be found or framed, in which an equal voice in making the laws might be allowed to every individual bound to obey them.

But this is a theory which, like most theories, confessedly requires limitations and modifications And the only question to be decided, in this as in other cases, turns on the particular degree of departure, in practice, required by the essence and object of the theory itself.

It must not be supposed that a crowded state of population, of which we have no example, and which we know only by the image reflected from examples elsewhere, is too remote to claim attention.

The ratio of increase in the United States shows that the present

12 millions will, in 25 years, be 24 millions.

24 ” ” 50 years, 48 “

48 ” ” 75 years, 96 “

96 ” ” 100 years, 192 “

There may be a gradual decrease of the rate of increase; but it will be small us as the agriculture shall yield its abundance. Great Britain has doubled her population in the last 50 years, notwithstanding its amount in proportion to its territory at the commencement of that period; and Ireland is a much stronger proof of the effect of an increasing product of food in multiplying the consumers.

How far this view of the subject will be affected by the republican laws of descent and distribution, in equalizing the property of the citizens, and in reducing to the minimum mutual surpluses for mutual supplies, cannot be inferred from any direct and adequate experiment. One result would seem to be a deficiency of the capital for the expensive establishments which facilitate labor and cheapen its products, on one hand, and, on the other, of the capacity to purchase the costly and ornamental articles consumed by the wealthy alone, who must cease to be idlers and become laborers; another, the increased mass of laborers added to the production of necessaries, by the withdrawal, for this object, of a part of those now employed in producing luxuries, and the addition to the laborers from the class of present consumers of luxuries. To the effect of these changes, intellectual, moral, and social, the institutions and laws of the country must be adapted, and it will require for the task all the wisdom of the wisest patriots.

Supposing the estimate of the growing population of the United States to be nearly correct, and the extent of their territory to be eight or nine hundred millions of acres, and one fourth of it to consist of inarable surface; there will, in a century or little more, be nearly as crowded a population in the United States as in Great Britain or France; and if the present constitution, [of Virginia,] with all its flaws, has lasted more than half a century, it is not an unreasonable hope that an amended one will last more than a century.

If these observations be just, every mind will be able to develop and apply them

No. 5.

Copy of a Paper communicated to James Madison by Col. Hamilton, about the close of Convention in Philadelphia, 1787, which, he said, delineated the Constitution which be would have wished to be proposed by the Convention. He had stated the principles of it in the course of the deliberations.

Note.— The caption, as well as the copy of the following paper, is in the hand-writing of Mr. Madison, and the whole manuscript, and the paper on which it is written, corresponds with the debates in the Convention with which it was preserved. The document was placed in Mr. Madison’s hands for preservation by Col. Hamilton, who regarded it as a permanent evidence of his opinion on the subject. But as he did not express his intention, at the time, that the original should be kept, Mr. Madison returned it, informing him that he had retained a copy. It appears, however, from a communication of the Rev. Dr. Mason to Dr. Eustis, (see letter of Dr. Eustis to J Madison, 28th April, 1819,) that the original remained among the papers left by Col. Hamilton.

In a letter to Mr. Pickering, dated Sept. 16 1803, (see Pitkin’s History, Vol. 2, p. 259—60) Col Hamilton was tinder the erroneous impression that this paper limited the duration of the presidential term to three years. This instance of the fallibility of Col. Hamilton’s memory, as well as his erroneous distribution of the numbers of the “Federalists” among the different writers for that work, it has been the lot of Mr. Madison to rectify; and it became incumbent, in the present instance, from the contents of the plan having been seen by others, (previously as well its subsequently to the publication of Col. Hamilton’s letter,) that it, also, should be published.

The people of the United States of America do ordain and establish this Constitution for the government of themselves and their posterity:—

Article I.—Sec. 1. The legislative power shall be vested in two distinct bodies of men, one to be called the Assembly, the other the Senate, subject to the negative here in after mentioned.

Sec. 2. The executive power, with the qualifications hereinafter specified, shall be vested in a President of the United States.

Sec. 3. The supreme judicial authority, except in the cases otherwise provided for in this Constitution, shall be vested in a court, to be called the Supreme Court, to consist of not less than six nor more than twelve judges.

Art. II.— Sec. 1. The Assembly shall consist of persons to be called representatives, who shall be chosen, except in the first instance, by the free male citizens and inhabitants of the several states comprehended in the Union, all of whom, of the age of twenty one years and upwards, shall be entitled to an equal vote.

Sec. 2. But the first Assembly shall be chosen in the manner prescribed in the last Article, and shall consist of one hundred members; of whom New Hampshire shall have five; Massachusetts, thirteen; Rhode Island, two; Connecticut, seven; New York, nine; New Jersey, six; Pennsylvania, twelve; Delaware, two; Maryland right; Virginia, sixteen; North Carolina, eight; South Carolina, eight; Georgia, four

Sec. 3. The legislature shall provide for the future elections of representatives, apportioning them in each state, from time to time, as nearly as may be to the number of persons described in the fourth section of the seventh article, so as that the whole number of representatives shall never be less than one hundred, nor more than—hundred. There shall be a census taken for this purpose within three years sifter the first meeting of the legislature, and within every successive period of ten years. The term for which representatives shall be elected shall be determined by the legislature, but shall not exceed three years. There shall be a general election at least once in three years, and the time of service of all the members in each assembly shall begin (except in filling vacancies) on the same day, and shall always end on the same day.

Sec. 4. Forty members shall make a House sufficient to proceed to business, but their number may he increased by the legislature, yet so as never to exceed a majority of the whole number of representatives.

Sec. 5. The Assembly shall choose its president the other officers; shall judge of the qualifications and electrons of its own members; punish them for improper conduct in their capacity of representatives, not extending to life or limb; and shall exclusively possess the power of impeachment, except in the case of the President of the United States; but no impeachment era member of the Senate shall be by less than two thirds of the representatives present.

Sec. 6. Representatives may vote by proxy; but no representative present shall be proxy for more than one who is absent.*

[Note *: * Query,—to provide for distant states.]

Sec. 7. Bills for raising revenue, and bills for appropriating moneys for the support of fleets and armies, and for paying the salaries of the officers of government, shall originate in the Assembly; but may be altered and amended by the Senate.

Sec. 8. The acceptance of an office under the United States by a representative shall vacate his seat in the Assembly.

Art. III.— Sec. 1. The Senate shall consist of persons to be chosen, except in the first instance by electors elected for that purpose by the citizens and inhabitants of the several states comprehended in the Union, who shall have, in their own right, or in the right of their wives, an estate in land, for not less than life, or a term of years, whereof, at the time of giving their votes there shall be at least fourteen years unexpired.

Sec. 2. But the first Senate shall be chosen in the manner prescribed in the last article; and shall consist of forty members, to be called senators; of whom New Hampshire shall have —; Massachusetts, —; Rhode Island, —; Connecticut, —; New York, —; New Jersey, —; Pennsylvania, —; Delaware, —; Maryland, —; Virginia. —; North Carolina,—; South Carolina, —; Georgia, —.

Sec. 3. The legislature shall provide for the future elections of senators, for which purpose the states, respectively, which have more than one senator, shall be divided into convenient districts, to which the senators shall be apportioned. A state having but one senator, shall be itself a district. On the death, resignation, or removal from office, off senator, his place shall be supplied by a new election in the district from which he came. Upon each election there shall be not less than six, nor more than twelve, electors chosen in a district.

Sec. 4. The number of senators shall never be less than forty, nor shall any state, if the same shall not hereafter be divided, ever have less than the number allotted to it in the second section of this article; but the legislature may increase the whole number of senators, in the same proportion to the whole number of representatives, as forty is to one hundred; and such increase beyond the present number shall be apportioned to the respective states in a ratio to the respective numbers of their representatives.

Sec. 5. If states shall be divided, or if a new arrangement of the boundaries of two or more states shall take place, the legislature shall apportion the number of senators (in elections succeeding such division or new arrangement) to which the constituent parts were entitled according to the change of situation, having regard to the number of persons described in the fourth section of the seventh article.

Sec. 6. The senators shall hold their places during good behavior, removable only by conviction, on impeachment, for some crime or misdemeanor. They shall continue to exercise their offices, when impeached, until a conviction shall take place. Sixteen senators attending in person shall be sufficient to make a House to transact business; but the legislature may increase this number, yet so as never to exceed a majority of the whole number of senators. The senators may vote by proxy, but no senator who is present shall be proxy for more than two wire are absent.

Sec. 7. The Senate shall choose its president and other officers; shall judge of the qualifications and elections of its members; and shall punish them for improper conduct in their capacity of senators; but such punishment shall not extend to life or limb, nor to expulsion. In the absence of their president they may choose a temporary president. The president shall only have a casting vote when the House is equally divided. Sec. 8. the Senate shall exclusively possess the power of declaring war. No treaty shall be made without their advice and consent; which shall also be necessary to the appointment of all officers except such for which a different provision is made in this Constitution.

Art. IV.—Sec. 1. the President of the United States of America (except in the first instance) shall be elected in the manner following: The judges of the Supreme Court shall, within sixty days after a vacancy shall happen, cause public notice to be given, in each state, of such vacancy; appointing therein three several days for the several purposes following—to wit, a day for commencing the election of electors for the purposes hereinafter specified, to be called the first electors, which day shall not be less than forty, nor more titan sixty days, after the day of the publication of the notice in each state; another day for the meeting of the electors, not less [than] forty, nor more than ninety, days from the day for commencing their election; another day for the meeting of electors to be chosen by the first electors, for the purpose hereinafter specified, and to be called the second electors, which day shall be not less than forty, nor more than sixty, days after the day for the meeting of the first electors.

Sec. 2. After notice of a vacancy shall have been given, there shall be chosen in each state a number of persons, as the first electors in the preceding section mentioned, equal to the whole number of the representatives and senators of such state in the legislature of the United States; which electors shall be chosen by the citizens of such state having an estate of inheritance, or for three lives, in land, or a clear personal estate of the value of one thousand Spanish milled dollars of the present standard.

Sec. 3. These first electors shall meet, in their respective states, at the time appointed, at one place, and shall proceed to vote by ballot for a President, who shall not be one of their own number, unless the legislature upon experiment should hereafter direct otherwise. They shall cause two lists to be made of the name or names of the person or persons voted for, which they, or the major part of them shall sign and certify. They shall then proceed each to nominate, openly, in the presence of the others, two persons as for second electors; and out of the persons who shall have the four highest numbers of nominations, they shall afterwards by ballot, by plurality of votes, choose two who shall be the second electors, to each of whom shall be delivered one of the lists before mentioned. These second electors shall not be any of the persons voted for as President. A copy of the same list, signed and certified in like manner, shall be transmitted by the first electors to the seat of the government of the United States, under a sealed cover directed to the president of the Assembly; which, after the meeting of the second electors shall be opened for the inspection of the two Houses of the legislature.

Sec. 4. The second electors shall meet precisely on the day appointed, and not on another day, at one place. The chief justice of the Supreme Court, or, if there be no chief justice, the judge senior in office in such court, or, if there be no one judge senior in office, some other judge of that court, by the choice of the rest of the judges, or of a majority, of them, shall attend at the same place, and shall preside at the meeting, but shall have no vote. Two thirds of the whole number or the electors shall constitute a sufficient meeting for the execution of their trust. At this meeting the lists delivered to the respective electors shall be produced and inspected; and if there be any person who has a majority of the whole number of votes given by the first electors, he shall be the President of the United States; but if there be no such person, the second electors so met shall proceed to vote by ballot, for one of the persons named in the lists, who shall have the three highest numbers of the votes of the first electors; and if upon the first or any succeeding ballot, on the day of their meeting, either of those persons shall have a number of votes equal to a majority of the whole number of second electors chosen, he shall be the President. But if no such choice be made on the day appointed for the meeting, either by reason of the non-attendance of the second electors, or their not agreeing, or any other matter, tire person having the greatest number of votes of the first electors shall be the President.

Sec. 5. If it should happen that the chief justice or some other judge of the Supreme Court should not attend in due time, the second electors shall proceed to the execution of their trust without him.

Sec. 6. If the judges should neglect to cause the notice required by the first section of this article to be given within the time therein limited, they may nevertheless cause it to be afterwards given; but their neglect, if wilful, is hereby declared to be an offence for which they may be impeached, and, if convicted, they shall be punished as in other cases of conviction on impeachment.

Sec. 7. The legislature shall, by permanent laws, provide such further regulations as may be necessary for the more orderly election of the President, not contravening the provisions herein contained.

Sec. 8. The President, before he shall enter upon the execution of his office, shall take an oath, or affirmation, faithfully to execute the same, and to the utmost of his judgment and power to protect the rights of the people, and preserve the Constitution inviolate. This oath, or affirmation, shall be administered by the president of the Senate for the time being, in the presence of both Houses of the legislature.

Sec. 9. The Senate and the Assembly shall always convene in session on the day appointed for the meeting of the second electors, and shall continue, sitting till the President take the oath, or affirmation, of office. He shall hold his place during good behavior,*

[Note *: * See editorial note at the beginning of this plan.]

removable only by conviction upon impeachment for some came or misdemeanor.

Sec. 10. The President, at the beginning of every meeting of the legislature, as soon as they shall be ready to proceed to business, shall convene them together at the place where the Senate shall sit, and shall communicate to them all such matters as may be necessary for their information, or as may require their consideration. He may by message, during the session, communicate all other matters which may appear to him proper. He may, whenever, in his opinion, the public business shall require it, convene the Senate and Assembly, or either of them, and may prorogue them for a time not exceeding forty days at one prorogation; and if they should disagree about their adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper. He shall have a right to negative all bills, resolutions, or acts, of the two Houses of the legislature about to be passed into laws. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed. He shall be the commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States, and of the militia within the several states, and shall have the direction of war when commenced; but he shall not take the actual command, in the field, of an army, without the consent of the Senate and Assembly. All treaties, conventions, and agreements with foreign nations, shall be made by him, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. He shall have the appointment of the principal or chief officers of each of the departments of war, naval affairs, finance, and foreign affairs; and shall have the nomination, and by and with the consent of the Senate, the appointment of all other officers to be appointed under the authority of the United States, except such for whom different provision is made by this Constitution; and provided that this shall not be construed to prevent the legislature from appointing, by name in their laws, persons to special and particular trusts created in such laws; nor shall be construed to prevent principals in offices merely ministerial from constituting deputies. In the recess of the Senate he may flit vacancies in offices, by appointments to continue in force until the end of the next session of the Senate. And he shall commission all officers. He shall have power to pardon all offences, except treason, for which he may grant reprieves, until the opinion of the Senate and Assembly can be had; and, with their concurrence, may pardon the same.

Sec. 11. He shall receive a fixed compensation for his services, to be paid to him at stated times, and not to be increased nor diminished during his continuance in office.

Sec. 12. If he depart out of the United States without the consent of the Senate and Assembly, he shall thereby abdicate his office.

See 13. He may be impeached for any crime or misdemeanor by the two Houses of the legislature, two thirds of each House concurring; and, if convicted, shall be removed from office. He may be afterwards tried and punished in the ordinary course of law. His impeachment shall operate as a suspension from office until the determination thereof.

Sec. 14. The president of the Senate shall be Vice-President of the United States. On the death, resignation, or impeachment, removal from office, or absence from the United States, of the President thereof, the Vice-President shall exercise all the powers by this Constitution vested in the President, until another shall be appointed, or until he shall return within the United States, if his absence was with the consent of the Senate and Assembly.

Art. V.—Sec. 1. There shall be a chief justice of the Supreme Court, who, together with the other judges thereof; shall hold the office during good behavior, removable only by conviction on impeachment for some crime or misdemeanor. Each judge shall have a competent salary, to be paid to him at stated times, and not to be diminished during his continuance in office.

The Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction in all causes in which the United States shall be a party; in all controversies between the united States and a particular state, or between two or more states, except such as relate to a claim of territory between the United States and one or more states, which shall be determined in the mode prescribed in the sixth article, in all cases affecting foreign ministers, consuls, and agents; and an appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, in all cases which shall concern the citizens of foreign nations; in all questions between the citizens of different states; and in all others in which the fundamental rights of this Constitution are involved, subject to such exceptions as are herein contained, and to such regulations as the legislature shall provide.

The judges of all courts which may be constituted by the legislature shall also hold their places during good behavior, removable only by conviction, on impeachment, for some crime or misdemeanor; and shall have competent salaries, to be paid at stated times, and not to be diminished during their continuance in office; but nothing herein contained shall be construed to prevent the legislature from abolishing such courts themselves.

All crimes, except upon impeachment, shall be tried by a jury of twelve men; and if they shall have been committed within any state, shall be tried within such state; and all civil causes arising under this Constitution, of the like kind with these which have been heretofore triable by jury in the respective states, shall in like manner be tried by jury; unless in special cases the legislature shall think proper to make different provision; to which provision the concurrence of two thirds of both Houses shall be necessary.

Sec. 2. Impeachments of the President and Vice-President of the United States, members of the Senate, the governors and presidents of the several states, the principal or chief officers of the departments enumerated in the tenth section of the fourth article, ambassadors, and other like public ministers, the judges of the Supreme Court, generals, and admirals of the navy shall be tried by a court to consist of the judges of the Supreme Court, and the chief justice, or first or senior judge of the superior court et law in each state, of whom twelve shall constitute a court. A majority of the judges present may convict. All other persons shall be tried, on impeachment, by a court to consist of the judges of the Supreme Court and six senators drawn by lot; a majority of whom may convict.

Impeachments shall clearly specify the particular offence for which the party accused is to be tried, and judgment on conviction, upon the trial thereof, shall be, either removal from office singly, or removal from office, and disqualification for holding any future office, or place or trust; but no judgment on impeachment shall prevent prosecution and punishment in the ordinary course of law; provided, that no judge concerned in such conviction shall sit as judge on the second trial. The legislature may remove the disabilities incurred by conviction on impeachment.

Art. VI.— Controversies about the right of territory between the United States and particular states shall be determined by a court to be constituted in manner following: The state or states claiming in opposition to the United States, as parties, shall nominate a number of persons, equal to double the number of the judges of the Supreme Court for the time being, of whom none shall be citizens by birth of the states which are parties, nor inhabitants thereof when nominated, and of whom not more than two shall have their actual residence in one state. Out of the persons so nominated, the Senate shall elect one half, who, together with the judges of the Supreme Court, shall form the court. Two thirds of the whole number may hear and determine the controversy, by plurality of voices. The states concerned may, at their option, claim a decision by the Supreme Court only. All the members of the court hereby instituted shall, prior to the hearing of the cause, take an oath, impartially, and according to the best of their judgments and consciences, to hear and determine the controversy.

Art. VII.—Sec. 1. The legislature of the United States shall have power to pass all laws which they shall judge necessary to the common defence and general welfare of the Union. But no bill, resolution, or act, of the Senate and Assembly shall have the force of a law until it shall have received the assent of the President, or of the Vice-President when exercising the powers of the President; and if such assent shall not have been given within ten days after such bill, resolution, or other act, shall have been presented to him for that purpose, the same shall not be it law. No bill, resolution, or other act, not assented to, shall be revived in the same session of the legislature. The mode of signifying such assent shall be by signing the bill, act, or resolution, and returning it, so signed, to either House of the legislature.

Sec. 2. The enacting style of all laws shall be, “Be it enacted by the people of the United States of America.”

Sec. 3. No bill of attainder shall be passed, nor any ex post facto law; nor shall any title of nobility be granted by the United States, or by either of them; nor shall any person holding an office or place of trust under the United States, without the permission of the legislature accept any present, emolument, office, or title from a foreign prince or state. Nor shall any religious sect, or denomination, or religious test for any office or place be ever established by law.

Sec. 4. Taxes on lands, houses, and other real estate, and capitation taxes, shall be proportioned, in each state, by the whole number of free persons, except Indians not taxed, and by three fifths of all other persons.

Sec. 5. The two Houses of the legislature may, by joint ballot, appoint a treasurer of the United States. Neither House, in the session of both Houses, without the consent of the other, shall adjourn for more than three days at a time. The senators and representatives, in attending, going to, and coming from, the session of their respective Houses, shall be privileged from arrest, except for crimes, and breaches of the peace. The place of meeting shall always be at the seat of government, which shall be fixed by law.

Sec. 6. The laws of the United States, and the treaties which have been made under the Articles of the Confederation, and which shall be made under this Constitution, shall be the supreme law of the land, and shall be so construed by the courts of the several states.

Sec. 7. The legislature shall convene at least once in each year; which, unless otherwise provided for by law, shall be on the first Monday in December.

Sec. 8. The members of the two Houses of the legislature shall receive a reasonable compensation for their services, to be paid out of the treasury of the United States, and ascertained by law. The law for making such provision shall he passed with the concurrence of the first assembly, and shall extend to succeeding assemblies; and no succeeding assembly shall concur in an alteration of such provision so as to increase its own compensation; but there shall be always a law in existence for making such provision.

Art. VIII.—See. 1. The governor or president of each state shall be appointed under the authority of the United States, and shall have a right to negative all laws about to be passed in the state of which he shall be governor or president, subject to such qualifications and regulations as the legislature of the United States shall prescribe. He shall in other respects have the same powers only which the constitution of the state does, or shall, allow to its governor or presidents except as to the appointment of officers of the militia.

Sec. 2. Each governor or president of a state shall hold his office until a successor be actually appointed, unless he die or resign, or be removed from office by conviction on impeachment. There shall be no appointment of such governor or president in the recess of the Senate.

The governors and presidents of the several states, at the time of the ratification of this Constitution, shall continue in office in the same manner and with the same powers as if they had been appointed pursuant to the first section of this article.

The officers of the militia in the several states may be appointed under the authority of the United States; the legislature whereof may authorize the governors or presidents of states to make such appointments, with such restrictions as they shall think proper.

Art. IX.—Sec. 1. No person shall be eligible to the office of President of the United States, unless he be now a citizen of one of the states, or hereafter be born a citizen of the United States.

See. 2. No person shall be eligible as a senator or representative unless, at the time of his election, he be a citizen and inhabitant of the state in which he is chosen; provided, that he shall not be deemed to be disqualified by a temporary absence from the state.

See. 3. No person entitled by this Constitution to elect, or to be elected, President of the United States, or a senator or representative in the legislature thereof, shall be disqualified but by the conviction of some offence for which the law shall have previously ordained the punishment of disqualification. But the legislature may by law provide that persons holding offices under the United States, or either of them, shall not be eligible to a place in the Assembly or Senate, and shall be during their continuance in office suspended from sitting in the Senate.

See. 4. No person having an office or place of trust under the United States, shall, without permission of the legislature, accept any present, emolument, office, or title, from any foreign prince or state.

See. 5. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to the rights, privileges, and immunities of citizens in every other state; and full faith and credit shall be given, in each state, to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of another.

See. 6. Fugitives from justice from one state, who shall be found in another, shall be delivered up, on the application of the state from which they fled.

Sec. 7. No new state shall be erected within the limits of another, or by the junction of two or more states, without the concurrent consent of the legislatures of the United States, and of the states concerned. The legislature of the United States may admit new states into the Union.

Sec. 8. The United States are hereby declared to be bound to guaranty to each and to protect each state as well against state a republican form of government; domestic violence as foreign invasion.

Sec. 9. All treaties, contracts, and engagements of the United States of America, under the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, shall have equal validity under this Constitution.

Sec. 10. No state shall enter into a treaty, alliance, or contract with another, or with a foreign power, without the consent of the United States.

Sec. 11. The members of the legislature of the United States and of each state, and all officers, executive and judicial, of the one and of the other, shall take an oath, or affirmation, to support the Constitution of the United States.

Sec. 12. This Constitution may receive such alterations and amendments as may be proposed by the legislature of the United States, with the concurrence of two thirds of the members of both Houses, and ratified by the legislatures of, or by conventions of deputies chosen by the people in two thirds of the states composing the Union.

Art. X.—This Constitution shall be submitted to the consideration of conventions in the several states, the members whereof shall be chosen by the people of such states, respectively, under the direction of their respective legislatures. Each convention which shall ratify the same, shall appoint the first representatives and senators from such state according to the rule prescribed in the—section of the—article. The representatives so appointed shall continue in office for one year only. Each convention so ratifying shall give notice thereof to the Congress of the United States, transmitting at the same time a list of the representatives and senators chosen. When the Constitution shall have been duly ratified, Congress shall give notice of a day and place for the meeting of the senators and representatives from the several states; and when these, or a majority of them, shall have assembled according to such notice, they shall by joint ballot, by plurality of votes, elect a President of the United States; and the Constitution thus organized shall be carried into effect

REFERENCES.

Note 1, page 4.

Washington’s Writings, vol. 8, p. 541.

Public Journals of Congress, 8th November, 1782, vol. 4, p, 103.]

Note 3, page 8.

See Debates below, p. 14.]

Note 4, page 9.

Secret Journals of Congress, (Domestic Affairs,) 27th November, 1782, vol. 1, p. 245.

Journal of Assembly of New Jersey, 1782, p. 10. Journal of Council of New Jersey, 1782, p. 7.

The instructions of the legislature of New Jersey, after undergoing much discussion and alteration, were passed on the 1st November, 1782, in the following form:—

“To the Honorable Elias Boudinot, John Witherspoon, Abraham Clark, Jonathan Elmer, and Silas Condict. Esquires, delegates representing this state in the Congress of the United States.

“Gentlemen,—Application having been made to the legislature for instructions on the important subject of dispute subsisting between the states of New York, NeW Hampshire, and the people on the New Hampshire Grants, styling themselves the state of Vermont, which is tinder the consideration of Congress they are of opinion, (as far as they have documents to direct their inquiry,) that as the competency of Congress was deemed full and complete at the passing of the resolutions of the 7th and 20th of August, 1781, (each of those states having made an absolute reference of the dispute to their final arbitrament,) these acts may be supposed to be founded on strict justice and propriety, nine states having agreed to the measure, and that great regard ought to be had to every determination of Congress where no new light is thrown upon the subject or weighty matters occur to justify a reversion of such their decision; and more especially as it appears that the people on the New Hampshire Grants have, by an act of their legislature, on the 22d of February last, in every instance complied with the preliminaries stated as conditional to such guaranty.

“The legislature, taking up this matter upon genera principles, are further of opinion, that Congress, considered as the sovereign guardians of the United States, ought at all times to prefer the general safety of the common canes to the particular separate interest of any individual state, and when circumstances may render such a measure expedient it ought certainly to be adopted.

“The legislature know of no disposition in Congress to attempt to reduce the said people to allegiance by force; but should that be the case, they will not consent to the sending any military force into the said territory to subdue the inhabitants to the obedience and subjection of the state or states that claim their allegiance.

“They disclaim every idea of imbruing their hands in the blood of their fellow-citizens, or entering into a civil war among themselves, at all times; but more especially at so critical a period as the present, conceiving such a step to be highly impolitic and dangerous.

“You are, therefore, instructed to govern yourselves in the discussion of this business by aforesaid opinions, as far as they may apply thereto.”]

Note 5, page 10.

Public Journals of Congress, 3d December, 1782, vol. 4, p. 110.

Secret Journal of Congress, (Foreign Affairs,) 3d December, 1782, vol. 3, p. 255.

Diplomatic Correspondence, (First Series,) 2d December, 1782, vol. 11, p. 282.

Public Journals of Congress, 5th December, 1782, vol. 4, p. 112.

Washington’s Writings, vol. 8, p. 382.

See Debates below, p. 12.]

Note 6, page 11.

Public Journals of Congress, 4th December, 1782, vol. 4, p. 111.

Minutes of Assembly of Pennsylvania for 1782, pp. 663, 672, 675, 733: the Memorials appear at large in the Minutes.]

Note. 7, page 16.

Public Journals of Congress, 6th December, 1782, vol. 4, p. 114; 19th December, 1789, vol. 4 p. 118; 18th December, 1782, vol. 4, p. 120; 20th December, 1782, vol. 4, p. 123; 31st December, 1789, vol. 4, p. 127; 2d January, 1783, vol. 4, p. 128; 14th January, 1783, vol. 4, p. 142.

Secret Journals of Congress, (Domestic Affairs,) 3d January, 1783, vol. 1, p. 246.

Diplomatic Correspondence, (First Series,) 4th January, 1783, vol. 11, p. 291.

The Providence Gazette, 2d November, 1782; the Boston Gazette, 10th November, 1782.

See Debates below, pp. 20, 80.]

Note 8, page 19.

Diplomatic Correspondence, (First Series,) 12th October, 1782, vol.. 4, p. 25; 18th September; 1782, vol. 8, p. 125; 13th October, 1782, vol. 8 p. 128; vol. 8, pp. 163, 208; 4th January, 1783, vol. 8, p. 215; 10th July, 1783, vol. 7, p. 67; 22d July, 1783, vol. 4, p. 138.

Life of John Jay, vol. 1, pp. 145, 490.

North American Review, vol. 30, No. 66, p. 17; vol. 33 No. 73 p. 475.

See Debates below, p. 77.]

Note 9, page 26.

Secret Journals of Congress, (Domestic Affairs,) 17th January, 1783, vol. 1, p. 253.]

Note 10, page 27.

The first of these letters is dated “23d September, 1789;” Diplomatic Correspondence, (First Series,) 23d September, 1782, vol. 6, p. 416; 8th October, 1789, vol. 6, p. 432. 1783,

Public Journals of Congress, 23d January, 12 vol. 4, p. 144.

Secret Journals of Congress, (Foreign Affairs,) 23d January, 1783, vol. 3, p. 289. See Debate low, pp. 27, 38. Note 11, Page 29.]

Note 11, page 29.

Public Journals of Congress, 24th January, 1783, vol. 4, p. 151; 20th February, 1783, vol. 4, p. 165.

Public Journals of Congress, 30th January, 1783, vol. 4, p. 153.

Note 12, page 31.

Public Journals of Congress, 25th January, 1783. vol. 4, p. 152.]

Note 13, page 49.

Public Journals of Congress, 6th February, 1783, vol. 4, p. 157; 12th to 17th February, 1783, vol. 4, p. 160 to 164; 25th February, 1783, vol. 4, p. 166; 10th March, 1783, vol. 4, p. 173. See Debates below, pp. 50, 51.]

Note 14, page 62.

See Debates below, p. 80.

There is, in the Archives of the Department of State, No. 137, a collection of the letters and reports of Mr. Morris, from 1781 to 1784, in four large folio volumes.]

Note 15, page 66.

Diplomatic Correspondence, (First Series,) 4th December, 1782, vol. 4, p. 46; vol. 6, p. 464; 12th December, 1782, vol. 8, p. 214; 14th December, 1782, vol. 10, p. 117; 24th December, 1782, vol. 2, p. 484; 30th December, 1782, vol. 11, p. 146.

Franklin’s Works, (Sparks’s edition,) vol. 9, pp. 435, 457.

See Debates below, 26th March, 1783, p. 76.

Life of Gouverneur Morris, vol. 1, pp. 244, 248.]

Note 16, page 67.

See Diplomatic Correspondence, (First Series,) 17th March, 1783, vol. 12, p. 339.]

Note 17, page 73.

Public Journals of Congress, 25th January, 1783, vol. 4, p. 152; 25th February, 1783, vol. 4, p. 166; 22d March, 1783, vol. 4, p. 178; 29th April, 1783, vol. 4, p. 206.

Diplomatic Correspondence, (First Series,) 15th October, 1782, vol. 12, p. 279; 17th October, 1782, vol. 12, p. 283; 21st October, 1782, vol. 12, p. 286; 10th January, 1783, vol. 10, p. 20; 15th May, 1783, vol: 12, p. 362.

Secret Journals of Congress, (Domestic Affairs,) 20th February, 1783, vol. 1, p. 254.

Washington’s Writings, 20th October, 1782, vol. 8, p. 353; 14th December, 1789, vol. 8, p. 369; 30th January, 1783, vol. 8, p. 376; 4th March, 1783, vol. 4, p. 388; 12th March, 1783, vol. 8, pp. 392, 393; 18th March, 1783, vol. 8, p. 396; 18th March, 1783, vol. 8, p. 400; 19th March, 1783, vol. 8, p. 403.

Life of General Greene, vol. 2, chap. 19.

Life of Gouverneur Morris, vol. 1, chap. 15, p. 250.]

Note 18, page 74.

Diplomatic Correspondence, (First Series,) 5th February, 1783, vol. 10, p. 28.

Secret Journal of Congress, (Foreign Affairs,) 24th March, 1783, vol. 3, p. 320.]

Note 19, page 77.

See Debates above, p. 19.

Secret Journals of Congress, (Foreign Affairs,) 6th to 15th June, 1781, vol. 2, p. 424 to 426; 24th September to 4th October, 1782, vol. 3, p. 218 to 250; 3d January, 1783, vol. 3, p. 269; vol. 3, p. 338.

Diplomatic Correspondence, (First Series,) vol. 4, p. 55 to 58; p. 84; p. 137; p. 163; p. 339; vol. 6, pp. 445, 467; vol. 7, pp. 63, 67; vol. 10, pp. 75, 98, 105, 115, 119, 130, 138; vol. 11, pp. 155, 309.

Franklin’s Works, (Sparks’s edition,) vol. 9, p. 452.]

Note 20, page 78.

Compare Public Journals of Congress, 20th March, 1783, vol. 4, p. 175, and 18th April, 1783, vol. 4, p. 190.]

Note 21, page 80.

Public Journals of Congress, 29th March, 1783, vol. 4, p. 181.

See Debates above, p. 62.]

Note 22, page 80.

See Debates above, p. 16.

In the Archives of the Department of State, No. 64, (being a volume containing the official letters of the governors of Rhode Island addressed to Congress,) this letter and the resolutions of tire legislature will be found.]

Note 23, page 81.

Public Journals of Congress, 24th March, 1783, vol. 4, p. 179.

Diplomatic Correspondence, (First Series,) vol. 11, p. 318.

Almon’s Remembrancer, vol. 15, pp. 365, 366.]

Note 24, page 81.

See below, p. 117.

Journals of the Legislature of Massachusetts, 13th February, 1783.

Journals of the Legislature of New York, 8th, 10th, and 11th March, 1783.

Journals of the Legislature of New Hampshire, 1st March, 1783.]

Note 25, page 82.

See Debates below, p. 83.]

Note 26, page 82.

Washington’s Writings, 30th March, 1783, vol. 8, p. 409.

Life of Greene, vol. 2, p. 391.]

Note 27, page 83.

See Debates above, pp. 78, 82.]

Note 28, page 84.

Public Journals of Congress, 11th April, 1783, vol. 4, p. 186.

Diplomatic Correspondence, (First Series,) 10th April, 1783, vol. 11, p. 328; 12th April, 1763, vol. 11, p. 334.]

Note 29, page 85.

Diplomatic Correspondence, (First Series,) 27th December, 1782, vol. 8, p. 402; 21st April, 1783, vol. 11, p. 335; 1st May, 1783, vol. 8, p. 436.

Secret Journals of Congress, (Foreign Affair) 21st May, 1783, vol. 3, p. 344.]

Note 30, page 86.

Secret Journals of Congress, (Foreign Affairs,) 15th April, 1783, vol. 3, p. 327.]

Note 31, page 36.

Public Journals of Congress, 16th April, 1783, vol. 4, p. 188.]

Note 32, page 87.

The following references will exhibit the principal proceedings of the Congress of the Confederation on the subjects of a general revenue and cessions of public land: Public Journals of Congress, 6th September, 1780, vol. 3, p. 516; 1st February, 1781, vol. 3, p. 571; 3d February, 1781, vol. 3, p. 572; 7th February, 1781, vol. 3, p. 574; 1st March, 1781, vol. 3, p. 582; 15th March, 1781, vol. 3, p. 594; 22d March, 1781, vol. 3, p. 600; 16th July, 1781, vol. 3, p. 646; 4th October, 1781, vol. 3, p. 674; 20th February, 1782, vol. 3, p. 721; 1st July, 1782, vol. 4, p. 43; 16th December, 1782, vol. 4, p. 119; 24th December, 1782, vol. 4, p. 126; 30th January, 1783, vol. 4, p. 154; 6th February, 1783, vol. 4, p. 157; 20th and 21st March, 1783, vol. 4, p. 174; 28th March, 1783, vol. 4, p. 180; 1st April, 1783, vol. 4, p. 182; 17th and 18th April, 1783, vol. 4, p. 190; 24th April, 1783, vol. 4, p. 194; 27th and 30th April, 1784, vol. 4, pp. 389, 392; 20th June, 1783, vol. 4, p. 230; 11th September, 1783, vol. 4, pp. 262, 265; 1st March, 1784, vol 4, p. 342; 18th and 19th April, 1785, vol. 4, p. 501; 23d May, 1785, vol. 4, p. 525; 3d, 7th, and 15th February, 1786, vol. 4; pp. 614, 618; 3d March, 1786, vol. 4. p. 621; 7th July. 1786, vol. 4, p. 661; 27th July, 1786, vol. 4, p. 669; 29th September, 1786, vol. 4, p. 702; 23d October, 1786, vol. 4, p. 715; 15th July, 1788, vol. 4, p. 834.

Elliot’s Debates, vol. 1, p. 92.]

Note 33, page 87.

Public Journals of Congress, 23d April, 1783, vol. 4, p. 193.

Washington’s Writings, 18th April, 1783, vol. 8, p. 423.]

Note 34, page 88.

Secret Journals of Congress, (Foreign Affairs,) 5th May, 1783, vol. 3, p. 342.]

Note 35, page 88.

This resolution does not appear on the Public Journals of Congress till 7th August, 1783, vol. 4, p. 251.]

Note 36, page 88.

See Public Journals of Congress, 7th May, 1783, vol. 4, p. 220.]

Note 37, page 88.

See Debates below, p. 90.

Public Journals of Congress, 8th May, 1783, vol. 4 p. 220.

Washington’s Writings, 6th May, 1783, vol. 8, p. 430; Appendix, No. IX.

Diplomatic Correspondence, (First Series,) 14th April 1783, vol. 11, p. 335; 27th January, 1780, vol. 7, p. 199; 18th February, 1780, vol. 9, p. 21.

There is in the Archives of the Department of State. No. 59, a volume of correspondence of Oliver Pollock, containing that with the committee on Foreign Affairs, in reference to the policy of Spain.]

Note 38, Page 88.

See Debates below, 30th May, 1783, p. 90.]

Note 39, page 88.

See Debates below, p. 90.]

Note 40, page 89.

See Debates below, 30th May, p. 90.

Note 41, page 89.

Secret Journals of Congress, (Foreign Affairs,) 21st and 22d May, 1783, vol. 3, p. 344 to 354.]

Note 42, page 90.

Public Journals of Congress, 26th May, 1783, vol. 4, p. 224.

Washington’s Writings, 7th June, 1783, vol. 8, p. 438.]

Note 43, page 90.

Secret Journals of Congress, (Foreign Affairs,) 30th May, 1783, vol. 3, pp. 355, 361.

Public Journals of Congress, 30th May, 1783, vol. 4, p. 224.]

Note 44, page 90.

Public Journals of Congress, 4th June, 1783, vol. 4, p. 226; 4th July, 1783, vol. 4, p. 235.

Diplomatic Correspondence, (First Series,) 18th July, 1783, vol. 12, p. 380.]

Note 45, page 91.

These instructions are printed in the Public Journals of Congress, 20th June, 1783, vol. 4, p. 231.]

Note 46, page 91.

Secret Journals of Congress, (Foreign Affairs,) 12th June, 1783, vol. 3, p. 366.]

Note 47, page 91.

See Debates below, pp. 92, 93.]

Note 48, page 91.

Public Journals of Congress, 17th June, 1783, vol. 4, p. 228.]

Note 49, page 93.

Public Journals of Congress, 20th June, 1785, vol. 4, p. 230.

See Debates above, p. 87, and references there.]

Note 50, page 94.

See Debates above, p. 92.

Public Journals of Congress, 21st June, 1783, vol. 4, p. 231; 1st July, 1783, vol. 4, p. 232; 28th July, 1783, vol. 4, p. 240; 28th August, 1783, vol. 4, p. 257.

Diplomatic Correspondence, (Second Series,) vol. 1, p. 9 to 46.

Washington’s Writings, 24th June, 1783, vol. 8, p. 454.

There is in the Archives of the Department of State, No. 38, a volume containing the letters and palters on this subject.]

Note 51, page 96.

Public Journals of Congress, 9th March, 1787, vol. 4, p. 725.

Washington’s Writings, vol. 9, pp. 207, 235, 249.

Bradford’s History of Massachusetts, vol. 2, p. 300; Minot’s History of the Insurrection in Massachusetts.]

Note 52, page 96.

Public Journals of Congress, 21st February, 1787, vol. 4, p. 793.]

Note 53, page 97.

See Correspondence below, p. 106.]

Note 54, page 98.

See Debates below, pp. 100, 102, and Correspondence, p. 107.]

Note 55, page 99.

Public Journals of Congress, 21st March, 1787, vol. 4, p 730; 13th April, 1787, vol. 4, p. 735.]

Note 56, page 101.

Diplomatic Correspondence, (Second Series,) vol. 6, pp. 207 to 228.]

Note 57, page 102.

Public Journals of Congress, 3d May, 1787, vol. 4, p. 741.

Secret Journals of Congress, (Foreign Affairs,) 3d May, 1787, vol. 4, p. 343.]

Note 58, page 103. See Correspondence below, p. 103. Secret Journals of Congress, (Foreign Affairs,) vol. 4, p. 339.]

Note 60, page 105. Public Journals of Congress, 31st August, 1786, vol. 4, p. 689.]

Note 61, page 106. Public Journals of Congress, 21st February, 1787, vol. 4, p. 723.]

Note 62, page 110. Franklin’s Works, (Sparks’s edition,) vol. 3, p. 22; vol. 7, p. 83. Life of William Livingston, p. 99, and Appendix. Pitkin’s History of the United States, vol. 1. pp, 142, 429.]

Note 63, page 110. American Archives, (Fourth Series,) vol. 1, p. 893. Mr. Madison has emitted to notice here the Congress which met at New York in October, 1765. Massachusetts State Papers vol. 1, p. 35. Franklin’s Works, (Sparks’s edition,) vol. 7, p. 298. Political Writings of John Dickinson) vol. 1, p. 91. Marshall’s History of the Colonies, chap. 13. Pitkin’s History of the United States, vol. l, p. 178.]

Note 64, page 110. Franklin’s Works, (Sparks’s edition,) vol. 5, p. 91 Secret Journals of Congress, (Domestic Affairs,) 21st July, 1775, vol. 1, p. 283. 75]

Note 65, page 110. Secret Journals of Congress, (Domestic Affairs,) 12th July, 1776, vol. 1, p. 290.]

Note 66, page 111. Secret Journals of Congress, (Domestic Affairs,) vol. 1, pp. 290 to 367,]

Note 67, page 111. Secret Journals of Congress, (Domestic Affairs,) vol. 1, p. 448. Public Journals of Congress, vol. 3, p. 586.]

Note 68, page 113. Secret Journals of Congress, 26th August, 1776 to lath November, 1777, vol. l, pp. 304 to 349; 17th November, 1777, vol; l, p. 362; 22d June to 25th June, 1778, vol. 1, pp. 368 to 386; vol. 1, pp. 421 to 446. Public Journals of Congress, 10th July, 1778, vol. 2, p. 619. Story’s Commentaries on the Constitution, vol. 1, pp. 214, 228.]

Note 69, page 114. For the proceedings of the Legislature of Virginia, 30th November, 1785; 1st December, 1785; 21st January, 1786; see Elliot’s Debates, vol. I, pp. 113, 116. The lost resolution, as there given, varies somewhat from that quoted by Mr. Madison. Journal of the Senate of Maryland, November, 1784, p. 42. Journal of the House of Delegates of Maryland, November, 1784, pp. 103, 105, 107, 113, 121, 125; November, 1785, pp. 7, 10, 11, and 20. Washington’s Writings, 18th January, 1784, vol. 9, p. 11. Life of John Jay, 16th March, 1786 vol. 1, p. 242. Marshall’s Life of Washington, vol. 5, p. 90. Story’s Commentaries on the Constitution, vol. 1, p. 252.]

Note 70, page 116. Laws of the United States, (edition of 1815,) vol. 1, p. 55, Elliot’s Debates, vol. l, p; 116. Journal of the Senate of New York, 5th May, 1786, p. 103. Minutes of the Assembly of Pennsylvania, 21st March, 1786, p. 227. Journal of the Assembly of New Jersey, 20th March, 1786, p. 72; 9th November, 1786, p. 28; 20th November, 1786, p. 62; 24th November, 1786, p. 36.]

Note 71, page 117. Public Journals of Congress, 15th February, 1786, vol. 4, p. 618. Journal of the Federal Convention, p. 36. Journals of the Senate of Virginia, 23d November and 4th December, 1786. Journals of the House of Delegates of Virginia, 9th November and 4th December, 1786.]

Note 72, page 117. “A Dissolution on the Political Union and Constitution of the Thirteen United States of North America, Philadelphia, 1783.” This pamphlet was republished in a volume of Political Essays by Pelatiah Webster, Philadelphia 1791.]

Note 73, page 118. See Debates above, p. 81, and references at note 24. Journal of the Senate of New York, 19th July, 1782, p, 87; 20th July, 1782.]

Note 74, page 118. There is a letter of this date to Mr. Madison, though not oil the subject here referred to in the Life of Richard Henry Lee, vol. 2, p. 51 Mr. Lee was elected president of Congress on the 30th November; 1784. Mr. Webster’s proposal was Contained in a pamphlet published in the winter of 1784—5, entitled, “Sketches of American Policy;” Life of Noah Webster, in the National Portrait Gallery, p. 4.]

Note 75, page 120. Public Journals of Congress, 15th February, 1786, vol. 4, p. 618; 3d March, 1786, vol. 4, p, 621; 14th August, 1786, vol. 4, p. 682; 22d August, 1786, vol. 4, p. 683; 23d October, 1786, vol. 4, p. 715; 21st February, 1787, vol. 4, p. 723. American Museum, vol. 1, p. 270; vol. 3, p. 554. Life of John Jay, vol. 1, p. 255. Story’s Commentaries on the Constitution, vol. 1, book 2, chap. 4. North American Review, vol. 25, p. 249.]

Note 76, page 121. See Correspondence above, p. 107. The letter of Mr. Madison to Gen. Washington, of 16th April, 1787, will be found in Washington’s Writings, vol. 9, p. 516, Appendix, No. III.]

Note 77, page 121. See Debates below, 8th June, 1787, p. 170; 19th June, 1787, p. 908; 17th July, 1787, p. 301; 23d August, 1787, p. 467. Journal of the Federal Convention, 31st May, 1787, p. 87; 8th June, 1787, p. 107; 19th June, 1787, p. 136; 17th July, 1787, p. 183; 23d August, 1787, p. 281. North American Review, vol. 25, pp. 264, 265, 266.]

Note 78; page 121. See Correspondence above, p. 107; Debates below, p. 196.]

Note 79, page 124. Journal of the Federal Convention, p. 33. Laws of Delaware, 3d February, 1787, vol. 1, p. 892.]

Note 80, page 134. See Yates’s Minutes, 30th May, 1787; Elliot, vol. 1, p. 391.]

Note 81, page 135. It is stated in Yates’s Minutes, that the state of New Jersey was not represented in the Convention till this day. No vote Of that state appears previously on the Journal.]

Note 82, page 137. See Debates below, 2d June, 1787, p. 149; 21st June, 1787, p. 223; 7th August, 1787, p. 388; 8th August, 1787 p. 388. Jefferson’s Works, vol. 2, p. 273.]

Note 83, page 189. See Debates below, 2d June, 1787, p. 148; 7th June, 1787, p. 169.]

Note 84, page 141. See Debates below, 4th June, 1787, p. 150; 13th June, 1787, p. 190; 15th June, 1787, p. 192; 16th June, 1787, p. 197; 24th August, 1787, p. 471. Jefferson’s Works vol. 4, pp. 160, 161. The Federalist, No. 70. Debates in the Convention of North Carolina, 26th July, 1788, Elliot, vol. 4, p. 104.]

Note 85, page 143. See Debates below, 13th June, 1787, p. 190; 19th July, 1787, p. 339; 94th July, 1787, p. 358; 26th July, 1787, p. 369; 6th August, 1787, p. 380; 4th September, 1787, p. 507; 6th September, 1787, p. 518. The Federalist, No. 71. Story’s Commentaries on the Constitution, vol. 3, p. 291.]

Note 86, page 144. See Debates below, 13th June, 1787, p. 190; 19th July, 1787, p. 338; 24th July, 1787, p. 358; 6th August, 1787, p. 380; 24th August, 1787, p. 471; 4th September, 1787, p. 507; 6th September, 1787, p. 516. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 18th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, pp. 488, 496. Debates in the Convention of North Carolina, 26th July, 1788, Elliot, vol. 4, p. 105. Debates in the Convention of Pennsylvania, 11th December, 1787, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 511.]

Note 87, page 147. See Debates below, 13th June, 1787, p. 190; 6th August, 1787, p. 380. The Federalist, No. 73.]

Note 88, page 149. See Debates below, 13th June, 1787, p. 190; 18th July, 1787, p. 331; 26th July, 1787, p. 376; 6th August, 1787, p. 380; 4th September, 1787, p. 507; 8th September, 1787, p. 528. The Federalist, No. 65. Debates in the Convention of North Carolina, 24th July, 1788, Elliot, vol. 4, p. 32; 25th July, 1788, Elliot, vol. 4, p. 43; 28th July, 1788, Elliot, vol. 4, p. 113.]

Note 89, page 151. See Debates above, p. 141, and references at note 84.]

Note 90, page 154. See Debates below, 6th June, 1787, p. 164; 13th June, 1787, p. 190; 21st July, 1787, p. 344; 6th August, 1787, p. 378; 15th August, 1787, p. 428. The Federalist, No. 51; No. 73. Debates in the Convention of Pennsylvania, 1st December, 1787, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 447; 4th December, 1787, Elliot, vol. 4, p. 429.]

Note 91, page 155. See Debates above, p. 128, where the original resolution is given, as already containing a clause nearly the same as this amendment. The resolution of Mr. Randolph, as printed in the Journal of the Federal Convention, p. 63, does not contain the clause given by Mr. Madison.]

Note 92, page 156. See Debates below, 13th June, 1787, pp. 188, 190; 18th July, 1787, p. 327; 21st July, 1787, p. 349; 26th July, 1787, p. 376; fth August, 1787, p. 379; 4th September, 1787, p. 507; 7th September, 1787, p. 523.]

Note 93, page 158. See Debates below, 12th June, 1787, p. 183; 13th June, 1787, p. 190; 23d July, 1787, p. 352; 26th July, 1787, p. 376; 6th August, 1787, p. 381; 31st August, 1787, p. 499; 10th September, 1787, p. 533; 16th September, 1787, p. 552. The Federalist, No. 43.]

Note 94, page 160. See Debates below, 18th July, 1787, p. 331. The Federalist, No. 81.]

Note 95, page 164. See Debates above, p. 137, and references at note 82.]

Note 96, page 166. See Debates above, p. 154, and references at note 90.]

Note 97, page 170. See Debates above, p. 138, and references at note 83.]

Note 98, page 174. See Introduction above, p. 121, and references at note 77.]

Note 99, page 175. See Debates above, p. 144, and references at note 86. North Carolina voted in the negative. Journal of the Federal Convention, 9th June, 1787, p. 110.]

Note 100, page 181. See Debates above, p. 137, and references at note 82.]

Note 101, page 182. See Debates above, p. 138, and references at note 83.]

Note 102, page 182. See Debates below, 13th June, 1787, p. 190; 26th July, 1787, p. 376; 6th August, 1787, p. 381; 30th August, 1787, p. 498; 10th September, 1787, p. 530; 15th September, 1787, p. 551. Debates in the Convention of Massachusetts, 30th January, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 115; 1st February, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 138; 5th February, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 155. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 4th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 25; 5th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 48; 6th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, pp. 88, 94; 10th June, 1783, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 194; 25th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, pp. 630, 636, 647, 650. Debates in the Convention of North Carolina, 29th July, 1788, Elliot, vol. 4, p. 176.]

Note 103, page 183. See Debates below, 23d July, 1787, p. 352; 26th July, 1787, p. 376; 6th August, 1787, p. 381; 30th August, 1787, p. 498. Debates in the Convention of Connecticut, 9th January, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 202. Debates in the Convention of New York, 7th July, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 409. Debates in the Convention of North Carolina, 30th July, 1788, Elliot, vol. 4, p. 196. Debates in Congress, 6th of May, 1789, Elliot, vol. 4, p. 342.]

Note 104, page 183. See Debates above, p. 158, and references at note 93. Journal of the Federal Convention, p. 114.]

Note 105, page 184. See Debates below, 13th June, 1787, p. 189; 21st June, 1787, p. 224; 26th July, 1787, p. 375; 6th August, 1787, p. 377. Debates in the Convention of Massachusetts, 14th January, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 4; 15th January, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, pp. 5 to 21. Debates in the Convention of New York, 21st June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 241. Debates in the Convention of Pennsylvania, 4th December, 1787, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 464; 11th December. 1787, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 532. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 4th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 14. Debates in the Convention of North Carolina, 24th July, 1788, Elliot, vol. 4, p. 26. The Federalist, No. 52; No. 53.]

Note 106, page 185. See Debates below, 22d June, 1787, p. 226; 23d June, 1787, p. 230; 26th June, 1787, p. 245; 26th July, 1787, pp. 374, 375; 6th August, 1787, pp. 377, 378; 8th August, 1787, p. 388; 10th August, 1787, p. 402; 13th August, 1787, p. 411; 14th August, 1787, p. 420; 1st September, 1787, p. 503; 3d September, 1787, p. 504. Debates in the Convention of Massachusetts, 17th January, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 35; 21st January, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 52. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 14th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 367; 27th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 661. Letter of Edmund Randolph Elliot, vol. 1, p. 491. Address of Luther Martin to the Legislature of Maryland, 27th January, 1788, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 365. The Federalist, No. 52; No. 55; No. 56.]

Note 107, page 187. See Debates below, 13th June, 1787, p. 190; 18th June, 1787, p. 205; 25th June, 1787, p. 241; 26th June, 1787, p. 241; 26th July, 1787, p. 375; 6th August, 1787, p. 377; 9th August, 1787, p. 397.

Debates in the Convention of Massachusetts, 19th January, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 44. Debates in the Convention of New York, 24th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 287; 25th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 309. Debates in the Convention of North Carolina, 25th July, 1788, Elliot, vol. 4, p 37. North American Review, vol. 25, pp. 263, 265, 266.] [Note 108: Note 108, page 188. See Debates below, 13th June, 1787, p. 190; 15th June, 1787, p. 192; 18th June, 1787, p. 205; 18th July, 1787, p. 331; 26th July, 1787, p. 376; 6th August, 1787, p. 379; 27th August, 1787, p. 481; 28th August, 1787, p. 483. Debates in the Convention of Massachusetts, 30th January, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 111. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 18th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 517; 20th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 531; 21st June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 563; 23d June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 577. Debates in the Convention of North Carolina, 28th July, 1788, Elliot, vol. 4, p. 136; 29th July, 1788, Elliot, vol. 4, p. 153. Debates in the Convention of Pennsylvania, 7th December, 1787, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 486; 11th December, 1787, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 515. Address of Luther Martin to the Legislature of Maryland, 27th January, 1788, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 370. Objections of George Mason to the Federal Constitution, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 495. Report of James Madison to the Legislature of Virginia, 7th January, 1800, Elliot, vol. 4, pp. 548, 563. The Federalist, Nos. 80 to 83. Story’s Commentaries on the Constitution, vol. 3, pp. 499 to 651.]

Note 109, page 189. In the Journal of the Federal Convention, p. 121, the vote of Pennsylvania is given in the negative. The remarks of Mr. Butler, on this motion, as reported in Yates’s Minutes, are somewhat different, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 409. See Debates below. 5th July, 1787, p. 273; 6th July, 1787, p. 282; 16th July, 1787, p. 316; 26th July, 1787, p. 375; 6th of August, 1787, p. 377; 8th August, 1787, p. 394; 9th August, 1787, pp. 395, 396; 11th August, 1787, p. 410; 13th August, 1787, p. 414; 14th August, 1787, p. 422; 15th August, 1787, p. 428; 5th September, 1787, pp. 510, 511; 8th September, 1787, p. 529. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 14th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3. p. 375. Objections of George Mason, one of the Delegates from Virginia Elliot, vol. 1, p. 494. Address of Luther Martin to the Legislature of Maryland, 27th January, 1788, Elliot, vol. 1, 336.]

Note 110, page 190. These resolutions will be found in the Journal of the Federal Convention, 19th June, 1787, p. 134. There are verbal differences in the first, fourth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, thirteenth, fifteenth, and nineteenth resolutions.]

Note 111, page 193. Journal of Federal Convention, 15th June, 1787, p. 123. In the copy here given the two following resolutions, stated in the Journal to have been offered by Mr. Patterson with the rest, are entirely omitted. “Resolved, That the legislative, executive, and judiciary powers, within the several states, ought to be bound by oath to support the Articles of Union. “Resolved, That provision ought to be made for hearing and deciding upon all disputes arising between the United States and un individual state respecting territory.”]

Note 112, page 197. Stated in Yates’s Minutes to Gen. Charles C. Pinckney, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 415.]

Note 113, page 198. These speeches of Mr. Lansing, Mr. Patterson, Mr. Wilson, and Mr. Randolph, are very fully reported in Yates’s Minutes of this day’s debate. See Elliot vol. 1, pp. 410 to 417. See also Mr. Martin’s statement in regard to the debate on Mr. Patterson’s resolutions in his Address to the Legislature of Maryland, 27th January, 1788, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 349.]

Note 114, page 205. See Appendix, No. V., p. 584, for “Copy of a paper communicated to James Madison by Col. Hamilton, about the close of the Convention in Philadelphia, 1787, which, he said, delineated the Constitution which he would have wished to be proposed by the Convention.” Yates’s Minutes, 18th June, 1787, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 417. Debates in the Convention of New York, 20th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 230; 21st June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, pp. 251, 262; 24th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 300; 25th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 315; 27th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 347; 28th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, pp. 356, 360.]

Note: 115, page 210. Thomas M’Kean represented the state of Delaware in the Congress of the Confederation from 1774 to 1783, and was chief justice of Pennsylvania from 1777 to 1799. On the 2d February, 1782, Thomas M’Kean and Samuel Wharton, citizens of Pennsylvania, and Philemon Dickinson, a citizen of New Jersey, were elected delegates to Congress for the state of Delaware.]

Note 116, page 211. The report of this speech by Mr. Yates will be found in Elliot, vol. 1, p. 423. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 7th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 129.]

Note 117, page 211. A few remarks of Mr. Dickinson on this motion, which are omitted by Mr. Madison are given in Yates’s Minutes, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 425.]

Note 118, page 213. Yates’s Minutes, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 425. Debates in the Convention of Massachusetts, 21st January, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 54.]

Note 119, page 214. See Debates in the Convention of New York, 23d June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 273; 24th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p, 303. The Federalist, No. 17, p. 87.]

Note 120, page 216. Letter from Mr. Yates and Mr. Lansing to the governor of New York, containing their reasons for not subscribing the Federal Constitution, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 480.]

Note 121, page 217. Yates’s Minutes, 20th June, 1787, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 427. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 11th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 269.]

Note 122, page 218. Yates’s Minutes, 20th June, 1787, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 429. Address of Luther Martin to the Legislature of Maryland, 27th January, 1787, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 349.]

Note 123, page 219. Yates’s Minutes, 20th June, 1787, Elliot, vol. 1. p. 429.]

Note 124, page 220. Yates’s Minutes, 20th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 430.

Debates in the Convention of Pennsylvania, 26th November, 1787, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 422; 1st December, 1787, Elliot, vol. 2, pp. 445, 446, 447]

Note 125, page 221. Debates in the Convention of Pennsylvania, 28th October, 1787, Elliot, vol. 2, pp. 438, 439, 450.]

Note 126, page 223. See Debates below, p. 250. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 7th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 131. The Federalist, Nos. 45, 46. Judge Baldwin’s Views of the Constitution, pp. 6, 20.]

Note 127, page 224. See Debates above, p. 137, and references at note 82.]

Note 128, page 226. See Debates above, p. 184, and references at note 105.]

Note 129, page 228. The remarks of Mr. Hamilton and Mr. Ellsworth are given rather more fully in Yates’s Minutes; and there are some observations of Mr. Wilson on this motion, which are not noticed by Mr. Madison. Elliot, vol. 1, p. 435.]

Note 130, page 228. Moved by Mr. Mason, Yates’s Minutes, 22d June, 1787, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 436.]

Note 131, page 228. See Debates above, p. 186, and references at note 106.]

Note 132, page 229. See Debates above, p. 186, and references at note 106.]

Note 133, page 230. The debate on this motion is more fully reported in Yates’s Minutes, 22d June, 1787, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 436. See Debates above, at p. 186, and references at note 106. See also Debates below, pp. 230 to 233.]

Note 134, page 230. See Debates shove, p. 186, and references at note 106.]

Note 135, page 230. Mr. Mason’s remarks on this motion are omitted. See Yates’s Minutes, 23d June, 1787, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 440.]

Note 136, page 230. These remarks, and those of Mr. Mason, are reported more fully in Yates’s Minutes, Elliot, vol. 1, pp. 439, 440.]

Note 137, page 233. See Debates above, p. 186, and references at note 106.]

Note 138, page 238. The residue is reported in Yates’s Minutes, 25th June, 1787, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 444.]

Note 139, page 240. See Debates above, p. 139, and references at note 83.]

Note 140, page 241. Mr. Madison’s remarks on this motion are omitted. See Yates’s Minutes, 25th June, 1787, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 447.]

Note 141, page 242. These remarks of Gen. Pinckney are reported moire fully, and somewhat differently, in Yates’s Minutes, 26th June, 1787, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 448.]

Note 142, page 243. See the report of this debate in Yates’s Minutes, Elliot, vol. 1, pp. 448, 454.]

Note 143, page 245. See Debates above, p. 187, and references at note 107.]

Note 144, page 217. See Debates above, 12th June, 1787, p. 187; 13th June, 1787, p. 190; 26th July, 1787, p. 375. See also references at note 106.]

Note 145, page 247. In the Journal of the Federal Convention this vote is thus given: Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, ay, 6; Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, South Carolina, Georgia, no, 5.]

Note 146, page 248. See Debates above, 12th June, 1787, p. 187; 13th June, 1787, p. 190; 26th July, 1787, p. 375. See references at note 106, p. 186. The propositions of Dr. Franklin, given below, in the debates of the 30th June, 1787, p. 266, are stated in his works to have been offered on this day, the 26th June. Franklin’s Works, (Sparks’s edition,) vol 5, p. 142.]

Note 147, page 249. This speech of Mr. Martin is reported more fully in Yates’s Minutes, 27th and 28th June, 1787, Elliot, vol. 1, pp. 453 to 457.]

Note 148, page 253. See Debates above, p. 223, and references at note 126.]

Note 149, page 253. An explanatory remark of Mr. Martin, in reply, will be found in Yates’s Minutes, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 459.]

Note 150, page 253. Some remarks of Mr. Madison in reply to Mr. Sherman, not here given, will be found in Yates’s Minutes, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 459.]

Note 151, page 255. Franklin’s Works, (Sparks’s edition,) vol. 5, p. 153. Note by Dr. Franklin: “The Convention, except three or four persons, thought prayers unnecessary.”]

Note 152, page 258. See Debates above, p. 223, and references at note 126. Story’s Commentaries on the Constitution, vol, 2, p. 175.]

Note 153, page 259. This speech is very fully reported in Yates’s Minutes, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 461.]

Note 154, page 261. The remarks of Mr. Madison, at some length, on this resolution, and here omitted, will be found in Yates’s Minutes, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 465.]

Note 155, page 261. The law of New Hampshire, appointing delegates passed on the 27th June; Messrs. Langdon, Pickering, Gillman, and West, were chosen: on the 23d July, Messrs. Langdon and Gillman took their seats; Messrs. Pickering and West never attended. Journal of the Federal Convention, pp. 17, 196.]

Note 156, page 264. These speeches of Mr. Wilson and Mr. Ellsworth are very fully reported in Yates’s Minutes, Elliot vol. 1, pp. 466, 469.]

Note 157, page 268. The propositions of Dr. Franklin, offered in the course of this debate, are given in his works, with remarks different from those here reported; they are also stated to have been offered on the 26th June. Franklin’s Works, (Sparks’s edition,) vol. 5, p. 142. This speech of Mr. Bedford is reported somewhat more fully in Yates’s Minutes, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 471.]

Note 158, page 273. See the remarks of Mr Morris and Mr. Randolph in Yates’s Minutes, Elliot, vol. 1, pp. 475 to 476.]

Note 159, page 273. A report of the proceedings in this Grand Committee on the 3d July, 1787, will be found in Yates’s Minutes, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 477.]

Note 160, page 281. The two following statements, which have evidently reference to the apportionment of representation according to numbers and taxation, were among the papers transmitted by Gen. B. Bloomfield, executor of David Brearley, to the Department of State. Journal of the Federal Convention, p. 159.

{table}

The following quotas of taxation are extracted from the printed Journals of the old Congress, September 27th, 1785.

{table}

Note 161, page 284. See Debates above, p. 189, and references at note 109.]

Note 162, page 287. See Debates above, 11th June, 1787, p. 182; 19th June, 1787, p. 211; 25th June, 1787, p. 238; 28th June, 1787, p.253; 29th June, 1787, p. 257; 5th July, 1787, p. 274. See Debates below, 14th July, 1787, p. 311; 16th July, 1787, p. 317; 9th August, 1787, p. 397. Address of Luther Martin to the Legislature of Maryland, 27th January, 1787, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 348.]

Note 163, page 291. New York, no; in the Journal of the Federal Convention, 10th July, 1787, p. 166.]

Note 164, page 292. New York, no; in the Journal of the Federal Convention, 10th July, 1787, p. 166.]

Note 165, page 293. See Debates below, 16th July, 1787, p. 316; 20th July, 1787, p. 339; 26th July, 1787, p. 375; 6th August, 1787, p. 377; 20th August, 1787, p. 451; 21st August, 1787, p. 452. Debates in the Convention of Massachusetts, 17th January, 1788; Elliot, vol. 2, p. 36. Address of Luther Morrill to the Legislature of Maryland, 27th January, 1788; Elliot, vol. 1, p. 357. Debates in the Convention of New York, 23d June, 1788; Elliot, vol. 2, p. 274. The Federalist, No. 55, p. 312.]

Note 166, page 293. This resolution is somewhat different, as given in the Journal of the Federal Convention, 10th July, 1787, p. 167.]

Note 167, page 295. This resolution is somewhat different, as given in the Journal of the Federal Convention, 11th July, 1787, p. 168.]

Note 168, page 306. See Debates above, 11th June, 1787, p. 181; 13th June, 1787, p. 190; 5th July, 1787, p. 273; 9th July, 1787, p. 288; 10th July, 1787, p. 293; 11th July, 1787, p. 295. See Debates below, 13th July, 1787, p. 307; 16th July, 1787, p. 316; 26th July, 1787, p. 375; 6th August, 1787, p. 379; 8th August, 1787, p. 391; 21st August, 1787, p. 453; 17th September, 1787, p. 555. Debates in the Convention of Massachusetts, 17th January, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 32; 18th January, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 40. Debates in the Convention of New York, 20th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, pp. 226, 236; 21st June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, pp. 242, 252; 23d June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 270. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 4th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, pp. 11, 30; 6th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 99; 7th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, pp. 110, 124; 11th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 247; 12th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 320. Public Journals of Congress, 17th February, 1783, vol. 4, p. 162: 18th April, 1783, vol. 4, p. 190; 27th September, 1785, vol. 4, p. 587; 5th April 1792 vol. 1, p. 563. Address of Luther Martin to the Legislature of Maryland, 27th January, 1787, Elliot, vol. 1, pp. 348, 363. Objections of George Mason to the Federal Constitution, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 494. Letter of Messrs. Yates and Lansing to the Legislature of New York, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 481, The Federalist, No. 36; No. 54; No. 55; and No. 58. Address of the Minority of the Convention of Pennsylvania to their Constituents, American Museum, vol. 2, pp. 547, 551. Letter of Richard Henry Lee, 16th October, 1787, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 503. Debates in Congress, 14th August, 1789, Gales and Seaton, (First Series,) vol. 1, p. 749; 21st August, 1789, vol. 1, p. 802. Jefferson’s Works, vol. 4, p. 466. Story’s Commentaries on the Constitution, vol. 2, p. 147.]

Note 169, page 310. There are some verbal variations between the resolution, as given here, and that in the Journal of the Convention, p. 177.]

Note 170, page 317. See Debates above, pp. 287, 306, and references at notes 162 and 168.]

Note 171, page 317. See Debates above, 29th May, 1787, p 127; 31st May, 1789, p. 139: 13th June, 1787. p. 190. See Debates below, 17th July, 1787, p. 319; 6th August, 1787, p. 378.]

Note 172, page 320. See Debates above, p. 174, and references at note 98.]

Note 173, page 322. See Debates above, p. 174, and references at into 98.]

Note 174, page 325. See Debates above, p. 140, and references at note 86. See Debates below, 24th July, 1787, p. 358; 24th August, 1787, p. 473.]

Note 175, page 327. See Debates above, p. 143, and references at note 85.]

Note 176, page 328. See Debates above, p. 155, and references at note 90.]

Note 177, page 330. See Debates above, p. 156, and references at note 92.]

Note 178, page 333. See Debates below, 26th July, 1787, p. 376; 6th August, 1787, p. 381; 30th August, 1787, p. 497; 16th September, 1787, p. 551. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 7th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 129. The Federalist, No. 21; No. 43.]

Note 179, page 338. There are some verbal variations between the resolution, as given here, and that in the Journal of the Convention, p. 190;]

Note 180, page 339. See Debates above, p. 143, and references at note 85.]

Note 181, page 340. See Debates above, 13th June, 1787, p. 199; p. 149, and references at note 88.]

Note 182, page 349. See Debates above, p. 155, and references at note 90; p. 166, and note 96.]

Note 183, page 349. See Debates above, p. 156, and references at note 92.]

Note 184, page 351. See Debates, 1st June, 1787, p. 142; 13th June, 1787, p. 190; 17th July, 1787, p. 324; 18th July, 1787, p. 328; 21st July, 1787, p. 349; 29th July, 1787, p. 376; 6th August, 1787, pp. 379, 380; 4th September, 1787, p. 507; 7th September, 1787; p. 524. The Federalist, No. 76; No. 77.]

Note 185, page 356. See Debates above, p. 158, and references at note 93.]

Note 186, page 357. Maryland, no; in the Journal of the Federal Convention, 23d July, 1787, p. 198.]

Note 187, page 357. See Debates below, 6th August, 1787, p. 379; 21st August, 1787, p. 453; 22d August, 1787, p. 457; 24th August, 1787, p. 470; 25th August, 1787, p. 477; 28th August, 1787, p. 486; 31st August, 1787, p. 502; 14th September, 1787, p. 546. Debates in the Convention of Pennsylvania, 3d December, 1787, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 451. Debates in the Convention of New Hampshire, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 203. Debates in the Convention of Massachusetts, 18th January, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 40; 25th January, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 106. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 15th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 452; 17th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 481. Debates in the Convention of North Carolina, 26th July, 1788, Elliot, vol. 4, p. 110. Debates in the Convention of South Carolina, 16th January, 1788, Elliot, vol. 4, pp. 271, 276, 286, 295. Amendments to the Constitution proposed by the states. Supplement to the Journal of the Federal Convention, p. 462. Debates in Congress, 13th May, 1789, Gales and Seaton, (First Series,) vol. 1, p. 352. Objections of George Mason to the Federal Constitution, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 496. The Federalist, No. 7, p. 36; No. 26; No. 42; No. 44, p. 252.]

Note 188, page 370. Journal of the Federal Convention, 26th July, 1787, p. 204. There are some slight verbal differences.]

Note 189, page 374. See Debates below, p. 376.]

Note 190, page 376. Journal of the Federal Convention, 26th July, 1787 p. 207. The dates when each resolution was finally passed are there given.]

Note 191, page 381. Journal of the Federal Convention, 6th August, 1787, p. 215. There are a few verbal differences. The original draught, from which each is taken, was printed and is among the pallets relating to the Convention which were deposited by Gen. Washington in the Department of State, on the 19th March, 1796.]

Note 192, page 382. The proceedings on this motion are more fully stated in the Journal of the Federal Convention, 7th August, 1787, p. 230.]

Note 193, page 385. The Federalist, No. 52.]

Note 194, page 389. See Debates above, 31st May, 1787, p. 135; 21st June, 1787, p. 223. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 4th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 7. The Federalist, No. 52.]

Note 195, page 391. See Debates above, p. 188, and references at note 106.]

Note 196, page 394. See Debates above, p. 306, and references at note 168.]

Note 197, page 395. See Debates above, p. 189, and references at note 109.]

Note 198, page 401. See Debates above, 19th June, 1787, p. 187; 25th June, 1787, p. 241. See Debates below, 13th August, 1787, p. 414, The Federalist, No. 69.]

Note 199, page 402. See Debates above, 6th August, 1787, p. 377. Debates in the Convention of Massachusetts, 16th January, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 21; 17th January, 1787, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 29; 21st January, 1787, Elliot, vol. 2, p 48. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 4th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3 p. 9; 5th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 60; 9th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 175; 14th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 366. Debates in the Convention of North Carolina, 25th July, 1788, Elliot, vol. 4, p. 50.

Amendments to the Constitution proposed by the states; supplement to the Journal of the Federal Convention, pp. 402, 411, 418, 425, 433, 447, 454. Letter of Elbridge Gerry to the Legislature of Massachusetts, 18th October, 1787, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 492. Address of the Minority of the Convention of Pennsylvania, American Museum, vol. 2, p. 545.]

Note 200, page 404. See Debates above, pp. 186, 388, 401, and references at notes 106, 194, 198.]

Note 201, page 406. Debates in the Convention of Massachusetts, 16th January, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 22. The Federalist, No. 22; No. 58.]

Note 202, page 407. American State Papers, (Gales and Seaton’s edition,) Miscellaneous, 22d March, 1796, vol. 1, p. 144; 31st December, 1807, vol. 1, p. 701.]

Note 203, page 409. Journal of the Federal Convention, 13th September, 1787, p. 373.]

Note 204, page 410. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 14th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 366.]

Note 205, page 414. See Debates above, pp. 186, 401, and references to notes 106, 198.]

Note 206, page 420. See Debates above, p. 189, and references at note 109.]

Note 207, page 425. See Debates above, p. 186, and references at note 106.]

Note 208, page 427. See Debates above, p. 186, and references at note 106.]

Note 209, page 429. See Debates above, pp. 154, 166, and references at notes 90, 96.]

Note 210, page 431. See Debates above, p. 154, and references at note 90.]

Note 211, page 434. See Debates above, p. 357, and references at note 187.]

Note 212, page 435. See Debates above, 6th August, 1787, p. 378. Debates in the Convention of North Carolina, 26th July, 1788, Elliot, vol. 4, p. 90. Amendments to the Constitution proposed by the states; supplement to the Journal of the Federal Convention, p. 481. The Federalist, No. 41, p. 231.]

Note 213, page 436. See Debates above, 6th August, 1787, p. 378. See Debates below, 14th September, 1787, p. 542.]

Note 214, page 438. See Debates above, p. 334, and references at note 178. Also Debates above, 6th August, 1787, pp. 378, 381; Debates below, 23d August, 1787, p. 467; 30th August, 1787, p. 497. Debates in the Convention of Pennsylvania, 11th December, 1787, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 521. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 5th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 52; 6th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3 p. 90; 7th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3 p. 112; 12th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 388; 14th June, 1788, Elliot, vol, 3, p. 410. Address of Luther Martin to the Legislature of Maryland, 27th January, 1788, Elliot, vol. l, p. 370. Amendments to the Constitution proposed by the states; supplement to the Journal of the Federal Convention, p. 446. The Federalist, No. 29; No. 43.]

Note 215, page 439. See Debates above, 18th June, 1787, p. 205; 6th August, 1787, p. 379. See Debates below, 5th September, 1787, p. 510. Amendments to the Constitution proposed by the states; supplement to the Journal of the Federal Convention, pp. 434, 461. Public Journals of Congress, 1st March, 1781, vol. 3, p. 588. The Federalist, No. 23; No. 41. Report on the Virginia Resolutions, Elliot, vol. 4, p. 557.]

Note 216, page 441. See Debates below, 31st August, 1787. p. 449; 22d August, 1787, pp. 462; 463; 23d August, 1787, p. 469; 25th August, 1787, p. 475. The Federalist, No. 43; No. 84.]

Note 217, page 442. See Debates above, 29th May, 1787, p. 128; 6th June, 1787, p. 164. See Debates below, 20th August, 1787, p. 446; 22d August, 1787, p. 462; 4th September, 1787, p. 507; 7th September, 1787, p. 525. Debates in the Convention of Pennsylvania, 4th December, 1787, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 512. Debates in the Convention of North Carolina, 28th July, 1788, Elliot, vol. 4, p. 108. Objections of George Mason to the Constitution, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 495. The Federalist, No. 70; No. 74. Jefferson’s Works, vol. 4, p. 143.]

Note 218, page 443. See Debates above, 6th August, 1787, p. 379. See Debates below, 5th September, 1787, p. 510 14th September, 1787, p. 545. Debates in the Convention of Pennsylvania, 11th December, 1787, Elliot, vol. 2, pp. 520, 536. Debates in the Convention of Maryland, 29th April, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 551. Debates in the Convent on of Virginia, 6th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p 91; 14th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 378; 16th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 410; 24th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, pp. 587, 599. Debates in the Convention of North Carolina, 26th July, 1788, Elliot, vol. 4, p. 94. Amendments to the Constitution proposed by the states; supplement to the Journal of the Federal Convention, pp. 414, 421, 423, 427, 434, 443, 445, 456. The Federalist, Nos. 24 to 29; No. 41.]

Note 219, page 445. See Debates above, 6th August, 1787, p. 379. See Debates below, 21st August, 1787, p. 451; 23d August, 1787, p. 464; 14th September, 1787, p. 545. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 5th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 51; 6th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 90; 14th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, pp. 378, 388; 16th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, pp. 410, 439; 24th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 601. Amendments to the Constitution proposed by the states; supplement to the Journal of the Federal Convention, pp. 423, 427, 445. Address of Luther Martin to the Legislature of Maryland, 27th January, 1788, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 370. The Federalist, No. 29. Message of the President, 6th November, 1812; American State Papers, (Gales and Seaton’s edition,) Military Affairs, vol. 1, p. 319.]

Note 220, page 448. The proceedings are given more minutely in the Journal of the Federal Convention, 20th August, 1787, p. 268.]

Note 221, page 451. See Debates above, 6th August, 1787, p. 379. Objections of George Mason to the Constitution, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 495. Address of Luther Martin to the Legislature of Maryland, 27th January, 1788, Elliot, vol. l, p. 382.]

Note 222, page 453. New Hampshire ay; not stated in the Journal of the Federal Convention, 21st August; 1787, p. 275.]

Note 223, page 457. See Debates above, p. 357, and references at note 187.]

Note 224, page 461. See Debates above, p. 357, and references at note 187. See Debates above, 6th August, 1787, p. 379. See Debates below, 24th August, 1787, p. 470; 25th August, 1787, p. 478; 29th August, 1787, p. 488. Debates in the Convention of South Carolina, 17th January, 1788, Elliot, vol. 4, p. 299. Objections of George Mason to the Constitution, Elliot, vol 1, p. 494.]

Note 225, page 463. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 17th June, 1768, Elliot, yet. 3, p. 461. Amendments to the Constitution proposed by the states; supplement to the Journal of the Federal Convention, p. 430. Objections of George Mason to the Constitution, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 495. The Federalist, No. 44; No. 84.]

Note 226, page 463. See Debates above, p. 442, and references at note 216.]

Note 227, page 464. See Debates above, p. 442, and references at note 216.]

Note 228, page 467. See Debates above, p. 445, and references at note 219.]

Note 229, page 469. See Debates above, pp. 174, 416, and references at note 96.]

Note 230, page 470. See Debates above, 6th August, 1787, p. 379. See Debates below, 4th September, 1787, p. 507; 7th September, 1787, p. 524; 8th September, 1787, p. 526. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 18th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 498. Debates in the Convention of North Carolina, 28th July, 1788, Elliot, vol. 4, p. 346. Amendments to the Constitution proposed by the states; supplement to the Journal of the Federal Convention, p. 445. The Federalist, No. 64; No. 69: No. 75. Speeches of Mr. Madison in the House of Representatives, 10th March and 6th April, 1795. Debates on the British treaty, vol. 1, pp. 69, 375. Speech of Mr. Baldwin in the House of Representatives, 14th March, 1796. Debates on the British treaty, vol. 1, p. 118.]

Note 231 page 471. See Debates above, 6th August, 1787, p. 379. See Debates below, 27th August, 1787, p. 482. Journal of the Federal Convention, 27th August, 1787, p. 298. Debates in the Convention of Pennsylvania, 7th December 1787, Elliot, vol. 2 p. 490. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 20th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 532. Amendments to the Constitution proposed by the states; supplement to the Journal of the Federal Convention, pp. 424, 430, 438, 446, 459, 481. The Federalist, No. 39; No. 80.]

Note 232, page 474. See Debates above, p. 144, and references at note 86.]

Note 233, page 476. See Debates above p. 442, and references at note 216.]

Note 234, page 478. See Debates above, p. 357, and references at note 187.]

Note 235, page 479. See Debates above p. 475, where the resolution is stated to have been negatived without a count. In the Journal of the Federal Convention, p. 290, it is also stated in that manner.]

Note, 236, page 480. The resolution is not given in the Journal of the Federal Convention.]

Note 237, page 482. See Debates above, 5th June, 1787, p. 156; 18th July, 1787, p. 330. Debates in the Convention of Pennsylvania, 10th December, 1787, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 488; 11th December, 1787, Elliot, vol. 2, pp. 513, 531, 539. The Federalist, No. 79.]

Note 238, page 483. The amendments proposed to this section are more minutely given in the Journal of the Federal Convention, 27th August, 1787, p. 298. See Debates above, p. 188, and references at note 108.]

Note 239, page 485. See Debates above 6th August, 1787, p. 381. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 6th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 75; 17th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 471. Debates in the Convention of North Carolina, 29th June 1788, Elliot, vol. 4, p. 182. Address of Luther Martin to the Legislature of Maryland, 27th January, 1788. Elliot, vol. 1, p. 376. Letter of Mr. Madison to Mr. Ingersoll, 22d February, 1831, Elliot, vol. 4, p. 608. The Federalist, No. 44.]

Note 240. page 485. See Debates below, 14th September, 1787, p. 546. See references above, at note 239.]

Note 241, page 488. See Debates above, 6th August, 1787, p. 381. Journal of Congress, 1st March, 1781, vol. 3, p. 587.]

Note 242, page 488. See Debates below, 1st September, 1787, p. 503; 3d September, 1787, p. 504. The Federalist, No. 42.]

Note 243, page 492. See Debates above 28th August, 1787, p. 487; 13th September, 1787, p. 550. Debates in the Convention of North Carolina, 29th July, 1788. Elliot. vol. 4, p. 176. Debates in the Convention of South Carolina, 17th January, 1788, Elliot, vol. 4, p. 286.]

Note 244. page 493. The Journal of the Federal Convention, 29th August, 1787, p. 307, says,— “On the question being taken, it passed in the affirmative: New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, ay, 9; Maryland, Virginia, no, 2.” See Debates below, p. 471, and references at note 245.]

Note 245, page 497. South Carolina and Georgia, no, in the Journal of the Federal Convention, 30th August, 1787, p. 311.

See Debates above, 6th August, 1787, p. 381. See Debates below, 16th September, 1787, p. 550. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 23d June, 1787, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 585. The Federalist, No. 43. Hamilton’s Works, vol. 1, pp. 135, 147, 151.] [Note 246: Note 246, page 498. See Debates above, p. 439, and references at note 214.]

Note 247, page 501. See Debates above, p. 158, and references at note 93.]

Note 248, page 503. See Debates above, 8th June, 1787, p. 173; 6th August, 1787, pp. 378, 379 381; 21st August, 1787, p. 453; 25th August, 1787, p. 479; 28th August, 1787, pp. 483, 485. See references at note 187. See Debates below, 14th September, 1787, p. 546; 15th September, p. 549. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 17th June, 1787, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 481. Address of Luther Martin to the Legislature of Maryland, 27th January, 1787, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 375. Objections of George Mason to the Constitution, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 495. The Federalist, No. 44.]

Note 249, page 503. After article 7, sect. 1, clause 3, of the Constitution, as reported on the 6th August, 1787, above, p. 378. See Debates above, 29th August, 1787, p. 487. See Debates below, 3d September, 1787, p. 504. Amendments to the Constitution proposed by the states; supplement to the Journal of the Federal Convention p. 436. The Federalist, No. 42.]

Note 250, page 504. See Debates above, p. 488, and references at note 242.]

Note 251, page 506. See Debates above, p. 186, and references at note 106.]

Note 252, page 510. See Debates above, p. 144, and references at note 86.]

Note 253, page 512. See Debates above, 18th August, 1787, p. 440. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 6th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 89; 9th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 158; 16th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 430. Amendments to the Constitution proposed by the states; supplement to the Journal of the Federal Convention, pp. 423, 434, 446. The Federalist, No. 43.]

Note 254, page 520. In the Journal of the Federal Convention, 6th September, 1787, p. 332, the yeas and nays, not given by Mr. Madison on several of these motions, are inserted; lint the various amendments are less distinctly stated in the Journal.]

Note 255, page 521. See Debates above, p. 144, and references at note 86.]

Note 256, page 524. See Debates above, p. 351, and references at note 184.]

Note 257, page 527. Journal of the Federal Convention, 8th September, 1787, p. 343.]

Note 258, page 526. See Debates above, p. 470, and references at note 230.]

Note 259, page 532. See Debates above, p. 183, and references at note 102.]

Note 260, page 534. See Debates above, p. 158, and references at note 93.]

Note 261, page 535. See “A letter of Edmund Randolph, Esq., on the Federal Constitution, addressed to the speaker of the House of Delegates of Virginia, Richmond, 10th October, 1787,” in Elliot, vol. l, p. 482.]

Note 262, page 538. Debates in the Convention of Massachusetts, 30th January, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 109. Debates in the Convention of New York, 7th July, 1788, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 409. Debates in the Convention of Pennsylvania, 28th October, 1787, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 434; 4th December, 1787, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 453; 11th December, 1787, Elliot, vol. 2, p. 515. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 9th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 190; 12th June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3, p, 316; 16th June, 1787, Elliot, vol. 3, p. 443; 20th June, 1788, Elliot, vol 3, pp. 544, 560; 21st June, 1788, Elliot, vol. 3 p. 573. Debates in the Convention of North Carolina, 28th July, 1788, Elliot, vol. 4, pp. 143, 148; 29th July, 1788, Elliot, vol. 4, pp. 153, 160, 164, 175. Address of Luther Martin to the Legislature of Maryland, 27th January, 1788, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 380. Letter of Elbridge Gerry to the Legislature of Massachusetts, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 492. Objections of George Mason to the Constitution, Elliot, vol. 1, p. 494. Amendments to the Constitution proposed by the states; supplement to the Journal of the Federal Convention, pp. 402, 403, 413, 417, 426, 439, 453, 466. Address of the Minority of the Convention of Pennsylvania, 12th December, 1787; American Museum, vol. 9, p. 540. The Federalist, No. 3; No. 84. Debates in Congress, (Gales and Seaton’s First Series) 8th June, 1789, vol. 1, p. 448.]

Note 263, page 539. The letter to Congress, transmitting the Constitution, was read by paragraphs, and agreed to. Debates above, p. 536. Journal of the Federal Convention, p. 367.]

Note 264, page 540. See Debates above, 28th August, 1787, p. 485. See Debates below, 15th September, 1787, p. 548. Debates in the Convention of Virginia, 17th June, 1788. Elliot. vol. 3, p. 481. The Federalist, No. 44.]

Note 265, page 541. Referring to the articles so numbered in the draft of the Constitution reported on 6th August, 1787. See Debates above, p. 381.]

Note 266, page 541. The proceedings on these resolutions are not given by Mr. Madison, nor in the Journal of the Federal Convention. In the Journal of Congress, 28th September, 1787, vol. 4, p. 781, they are stated to have been presented to that body, as having passed in the Convention on the 17th September, immediately after the signing of the Constitution.]

Note 267, page 553. See Correspondence below, p. 570. The letters of Mr. Randolph, Mr. Mason, and Mr. Gerry, stating their reasons for not signing the Constitution, will be found in Elliot, vol. 1, pp. 482, 492, 494.]

Note 268, page 560. See Debates above, 6th August, 1787, p. 378; 4th September, 1787, p. 506.

Journal of the Federal Convention, pp. 220, 323, 356, 494. The Federalist, No. 41, p. 232. Story’s Commentaries on the Constitution, vol. 2, p. 371.] [Note 269: Note 269, page 565. The following members, however, had attended during the Convention:—

Massachusetts.

Caleb Strong.

Connecticut.

Oliver Ellsworth.

New York.

Robert Yates.

John Lansing.

New Jersey

William C. Houston.

Maryland.

John Francis Mercer.

Luther Martin.

Virginia.

George Wythe.

James M’Clurg.

North Carolina.

Alexander Martin.

William R. Davie.

Georgia.

William Pierce.

William Houston.

Note 270, page 569. Diplomatic Correspondence, (Second Series,) vol. 3, p. 303; vol. 5, p. 347; vol. 7, p. 188. Jefferson’s Works, vol. 2, pp. 238, 245, 255, 304, 381.]

Note 271, page 570. Washington’s Writings, 7th December, 1787, vol. 9, p. 285. Life of Richard Henry Lee, vol. 2, p. 78. Public Journals of Congress, vol. 4, Appendix, p. 47. American Museum, vol. 2, No. 6, pp. 536, 556, 558. Oswald’s Independent Gazetteer, 24th November, 1787. Pennsylvania Packet, 7th December, 1787.]

Note 272, page 571. The letter of Governor Randolph will be found in Elliot’s Debates on the Constitution, vol. 1, p. 518, American Museum, vol. 3, p. 62. Washington’s Writings, 8th January, 1788, vol 9, p. 296. Public Journals of Congress, vol. 4, Appendix, p. 47. Life of Richard Henry Lee, vol. 2, p. 130.]

Note 273, page 572. Life of Elbridge Gerry, vol. 2, p. 70. Elliot’s Debates on the Constitution, vol. 2, pp. 3, 43, 48.]

Note 274, page 573. Washington’s Writings, vol. 9, pp. 310, 329, 333.]

Note 275, page 573. Washington’s Writings, vol. 9, p. 334.]

Note 276, page 573. Jefferson’s Works, vol. 2, p. 319.]

Note 277, page 576. Washington’s Writings, vol. 9, p. 447. Life of Patrick Henry, p. 299. Life of Richard Henry Lee vol, 1, p. 241.]

INDEX,

GENERAL AND ANALYTICAL

ABATEMENT proposed in the apportionment of certain states, 58, 63, 77.

ABOLITION of the state governments, 212, 217, 218, 220, 224, 256. OF slavery, 457, 459.

ABSENCE of members of the Federal Convention provided against, 125, 126. Of members of Congress provided against, 406, 559. Of the Vice-President, 507, 559.

ACCEPTANCE of titles or presents forbidden, 467, 581.

ACHÆAN LEAGUE, 208, 209, 219.

ACCOUNTS relative to prisoners with the British, 4. Of the army to be settled, 30. To be rendered to states, 63. All examination of, by a committee of Congress, 80. The mode of adjusting those of the states, 86, 100. All relating to public money should be made public, 284. Unsettled, to disqualify persons from being members of Congress 371. To be published from time to time, 546, 561.

ACTS to be originated by each branch of the legislature, 127, 139, 190 375, 378. Each house to have a negative on them, 377, 382. Mode of passing them, 378, 428, 560. To be subject to revision, 128, 130, 151, 153, 164, 205, 344, 358, 376, 379, 428, 534, 536, 560. To be reenacted by a certain vote after revision, 128, 130, 151, 328, 348, 376, 379, 428, 537, 541, 560. To be passed, in certain cases, by two thirds, 166, 379, 479, 489, 560. To be suspended by the executive for a limited time, 154. To be the supreme law, 131, 192, 322, 375, 379, 467 564. Relating to money to originate in the House of Representatives, 109, 188, 274, 282, 310, 316, 375, 377, 394, 396, 410, 414, 423, 427, 452 510, 529, 560. Relating to money, to be voted on in proportion to the contributions of the states, 266. Relating to money, when altered, 274, 316, 375, 377, 394, 410, 415, 428, 560. Relating to bankruptcy, 488, 503, 504, 560. Relating to naturalization, 192, 378, 398, 411, 560. Relating to the migration and importation of slaves 379 457, 471, 477, 561. Relating to navigation, 130 379, 461, 470, 594, 539, 540, 548, 560. Ex post facto, 462, 485, 488, 545, 546, 561. Of the states to receive full credit 132, 381, 488, 504, 563. Of the states to be negatived by Congress, 127, 139, 171, 193, 210, 215, 249, 251, 321, 468.

ADAMS, JOHN, negotiates a treaty of commerce with the Dutch, 27. Distrusts the French ministers in the negotiations for peace, 18. Prophetic observations relative to Gilbraltar, 27. His conduct towards France, during the negotiations, discussed, 65, 68, 73, 74. Sends the preliminaries of peace, 84. He leave to return, 567, 568.

ADAMS, SAMUEL, introduces a person from Canada, 45. Views on the Federal Constitution, 571.

ADDRESS of the Congress of the Confederation to the states, 88, 111. Of the Congress of the Confederation to Rhode Island 88 Of the army to Congress, 20. For the formation of a new state in Pennsylvania, 31 Of the Convent on at Annapolis, 115. Of the Federal Convention to accompany the Constitution, 535, 546.

ADHERENCE to enemies constitutes treason, 130, 379, 448, 533.

ADJOURNMENT of the Convention may be by less than a quorum, 124. Of the Houses of Congress, 130, 378, 380, 406, 409, 550, 563.

ADMIRALTY, courts of, to be established by Congress, 131, 159. Cases of, under the jurisdiction of judiciary, 131, 378, 563.

ADMISSION. See New States.

AFFAIRS, Indian, 440, 462, 560. Department of domestic, 442, 446, 462. Department of foreign, under the Confederation, 9, 82, 89, 99. Department of foreign under the Constitution, 442, 446, 462.

AFFIRMATION. See Oath.

AGE of Representatives. 127, 129, 184, 228, 375, 377, 559. Of Senators, 127, 129, 186, 189, 241, 375, 377, 559. Of the President, 360, 462, 507, 562. Disability on account of, 360, 413.

AGRICULTURE, promotion of, 446.

ALBANY, deputies meet there in 1754, 110.

ALIENS. See Naturalization. Remarks on their admission to political rights, 398, 411.

ALLIANCE; discussions on the conduct of the American ministers at Paris in regard to alliance with Spain, 65. Danger of foreign, 258. Of small states with foreign powers, 268, 269. Treaties of, 470. Forbidden to the states by the Constitution, 131, 546, 561.

ALLEGHANY, how far a boundary of states, 87, 93.

AMAZON, 54.

AMBASSADORS to be appointed by the President and Senate, 205, 507, 523, 562. To be appointed by the Senate, 131, 379, 468, 469. To be received by the President, 131, 380, 479, 563. Cases of, under the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court, 131, 192, 380, 563.

AMENDMENTS of the Articles of Confederation strongly desired, 114. A Convention for, proposed at various times 117. Of the Constitution to be provided for therein, 128, 157, 182, 199, 351, 376, 381, 551, 564. To be made by a Convention to be called by Congress 132, 381, 498, 530, 551, 564. To be made by Congress, with the assent of a certain number of the states, 132, 551, 564. A second Federal Convention for, proposed, 552, 553. Of money bills by the Senate, 274, 316, 375, 377, 394, 410, 415, 427, 510, 529, 560.

AMERICAN REVOLUTION, its effect in producing reform in Europe, 575.

AMPHICTYONIC LEAGUE, 200, 208, 209, 210, 219.

ANARCHY, danger of, in 1787, 127.

ANNAPOLIS, Convention at, 96, 113, 114, 118.

ANNUAL meetings of Congress, 129, 377, 383, 385, 559. Election of representatives, 183, 224. Publication of the accounts, 545.

APPEAL, COURT OF, under the Confederation, 2. Judges elected, 11.

APPELLATE jurisdiction of the national judiciary, 131, 159, 192, 205, 208, 380, 483, 484, 563.

APPLICATION to Congress to subdue insurrection, 130, 378, 437, 497, 534, 564. Of the states to Congress to remove the President, 147. Of the states to Congress for a Convention to amend the Constitution, 381, 498, 551, 564.

APPOINTMENTS, danger of conferring the power of, on the President, 154, 329. The responsibility of the President in its exercise, 349. Of the President, 128, 140, 142, 143, 322, 358, 363, 370, 380, 471, 507, 512, 515, 562. Of the Vice-President, 507, 508, 520, 522, 562. Of an executive council, 446, 465, 525. Of senators by the President, 167. Of judges, 128, 131, 155, 156, 188, 205, 238, 349, 350, 376, 378, 379, 468, 469, 507, 524, 562. Of a treasurer, by ballot, 130, 378 436. Of ambassadors, 131, 379, 467, 469, 507, 524, 562. Of heads of departments, 445. Of officers in the militia, 443, 451, 464, 561. Of state executives by the general government, 205, 468. By the President, with the advice of the Senate, 131, 205, 328, 349, 597, 516, 524, 562. By the President, 141, 190, 192, 325, 334, 376, 389, 421, 446, 474, 595, 517, 550, 562. By the Senate, 131, 144, 156, 317, 328, 379, 467, 507, 508, 509, 513, 516, 592. By Congress, 127, 140, 147, 190, 192, 322, 335, 358, 366, 369, 375, 380, 382, 442, 472, 507, 508, 510, 513, 520, 525, 550. By an equal vote of the states, 266. By the courts, 550, 563. By the heads of departments, 550, 563. By the state authorities to national offices, 475, 479. Not to be made to offices hot previously created by law, 474, 592, 529, 563.

APPORTIONMENT. See Quota, Proportion. Of the Senate to be made after a census by the representatives, 131. Of the Senate into classes, 129, 270, 377, 559. Of representatives by a periodical census, 129, 131, 279, 289, 288, 316, 375, 377, 392, 559. Slaves to be considered in making that of representatives, 288, 290, 295, 296, 316, 375, 379, 391, 553, 559. Of representatives before a census, 129, 288, 290, 316, 375, 377, 541, 547, 553, 559. Of electors of the President, 338, 339, 507, 520, 562. Of direct taxation to be in proportion to representation, 304, 305, 306, 316, 375, 379, 391, 545, 559. Of taxation before a census, 306, 307, 357, 451, 452, 559. Of the adjustment of the state debts according to the rule of representation and taxation, 452.

APPROPRIATIONS, to be made by law whenever money is drawn from the treasury, 274, 316, 375, 377, 415, 420, 427, 510, 529, 561. To be limited in their duration, 510, 561.

ARISTOCRACY, 271, 283, 386, 394, 418, 419, 420, 516.

ARMAND, mutinous conduct of the troops in his legion, 92.

ARMING the militia, 130, 443, 451, 464, 544, 561.

ARMY, to be called out by Congress against a state failing in its constitutional duty, 128, 378. To be raised by Congress, 130, 379, 442, 510, 553, 561. To be commanded by the President, 131, 380, 562. To be superintended by a secretary of war, 446. Not to be kept by the states, 131, 205, 381, 548, 561. Officers of, not to be members of Congress, 422, 495. Provision as to a standing army, 442, 445, 466, 511, 544.

ARMY, AMERICAN, very much discontented, 23, 50, 66, 92. Goes into winter quarters, 1. Promotion should not be by districts, 10. Sends a memorial to Congress, 20. Conferences of deputies from the army with committee of Congress, 21, 23, 26. Suggestion to fund the debt due to it, 23, 51. Plan of settlement of its arrears, 30, 35, 51, 57, 59, 83. Proposal to appropriate the proceeds of impost to it, 51. Its determination to have provision for its pay, 55, 73. Reorganization of military affairs, 82. Satisfaction of, announced to Congress, 82. Amount of the army debt in 1783, 83. Furloughs granted, 87. Indemnity to officers of, 88. Mode of disbanding it, 89, 90. Proposal to give them certificates for land, 90. Mutinous conduct of the Pennsylvania troops, 92, 93. Enlistment of troops on account of the insurrection in Massachusetts, 94, 99. Troops kept by the states without the assent of Congress, 119.

ARMY, FRENCH, proposal to employ a legion of, in retaking goods seized while under pas port, 50.

ARNOLD, JONATHAN, represents Rhode Island in Congress, 1. His correspondence about Vermont, 31. Opposes the commutation of half pay, 45.

ARREARS to the army very large, 50, 51. Some provision for, asked, 24. Report for their settlement, 29, 30. Proposal to pay those to the army first, 51. Mode of settlement, 30, 31, 44, 57, 59, 64, 83. Amount in 1783, 83. Unprovided for in 1787, 119.

ARREST, freedom from, 130, 378, 445, 560.

ARSENALS, may be provided by Congress, 130. Jurisdiction in, to be exercised by Congress, 130, 511, 561.

ARTICLES. See Provisional.

ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION, reported in Congress, 110. Adopted, 111. Fifth article, 106. Eighth article, 21, 24, 63. Ninth article, 28, 36, 55, 88, 92, 102, 103. Twelfth article, 57. Rules of voting under, 61, 88, 92. Their violation by the states, 206, 208, 214. Necessity of enlarging them, 127. Amendment of them, 34, 63, 127, 191, 193, 197, 354.

ASGILL, CAPTAIN. Congress discusses the question of, 2. He is released by Congress, 2.

ASSAULT on members of Congress, 445.

ASSENT, of the states to the Constitution, 541. Of the Congress of the Confederation to the Constitution, 532. Of Congress and the state legislatures to a division of the states, 381, 493, 563. Of the Senate to treaties, 205, 507, 524, 562. Of the states to purchases by Congress, 511, 561. Of the states to certain acts of Congress, 552, 564. Of the states to amendments of the Constitution, 132, 381, 564. Of both Houses to an adjournment beyond a certain period, 130, 378, 560. Of Congress necessary to certain acts by the states, 131, 381, 484, 486, 548, 549, 561. Of Congress to amendments of the Constitution, 128, 157, 182, 564. Of the Senate to pardons, 480. Of the Senate to appointments, 131, 205, 329, 349, 507, 523, 562.

ASSOCIATION, to promote American manufactures, proposed in the Federal Convention, 540.

ASSUMPTION, of the engagements of the Confederation, 128, 157, 190, 332, 440, 441, 451, 471, 564. Of the debts of the states, 441, 451, 452, 471.

ATTAINDER, not to work corruption of blood or forfeiture beyond the life of the party, 379, 451, 563. Bills of, not to be passed, 462, 485, 528, 545, 546, 561.

ATTENDANCE of members of Congress to be provided for, 406, 560.

ATHENIANS, 159, 162, 252, 398.

AUSTRIA, her mediation, 1. Commercial treaty with, 52.

AUTHORS, protection of by Congress, 440, 511, 561.

B.

BALDWIN, ABRAHAM, attends the Federal Convention. 178. Views on the mode of electing the President, 509. Thinks there should be a representation of property in the Senate, 260. Views as to the eligibility of members of Congress to office, 505, 542. Thinks the qualification as to citizenship should apply as much to the present as the future, 414. Views as to provisions about slaves, 459, 478. Prefers a provision that the claims to the public lands shall not be affected by the Constitution, 497.

BALLOT, mode of voting by in Congress, 382, 436, 472, 520. President to be chosen by 507, 512, 514, 520, 562. President to be chosen by electors by, 143, 507, 520, 562. President to be chosen by the state legislatures by, 359, 472. President to be chosen by Congress by, 380. Electors of President to be chosen by, 514. Senators to be chosen by, 129. Congress to appoint a treasurer by, 130, 378, 434. Committees of the Convention chosen by, 125.

BANK, proposed by P. Webster, 117. Remarks upon in the Federal Convention, 544.

BANKRUPTCY, laws for, needed under Confederation, 120. Congress to establish a uniform law of, 488, 503, 504, 560.

BARCLAY, THOMAS, 14.

BARNEY, CAPTAIN, 65.

BASSET, RICHARD, attends the Federal Convention, 123.

BEAUMARCHAIS, 82.

BEDFORD, GUNNING, remarks on the terms of cession of the public lands by Virginia, 92, 93. Attends the Federal Convention, 124. Denies the right of the Convention to change the principle of the Confederation, 268. Opposes a negative of Congress on the state laws, 173. Insists on an equal suffrage of the states, 173, 267, 277. Accuses the large states of seeking to aggrandize themselves at the expense of the small, 267. Threatens an alliance of the small states with foreign powers, if oppressed by the large ones, 268. Explains his remarks as to the circumstances which would justify the small states in a foreign alliance, 277. Wishes to define more accurately the legislative power of Congress, 320. Opposes the conferring of the appointing power roe entirely on the President, 329. Prefers three years as the executive term, 143. Advocates the removal of the President by Congress of the states, 147. Opposes any negative on the legislature, 153.

BEHAVIOR, judges to continue during good, 128, 131, 156, 190, 295, 330, 976, 380, 481, 563. Senate to hold during good, 205, 241. President to bold during good, 325, 343. Of members of Congress, 378, 406, 560.

BENSON, EGBERT, views relative to Spain and Mississippi, 103.

BIENNIAL election of representatives, 183, 224, 375, 377, 558. Term of President, 335.

BILLS, each House to have a negative on them, 377, 382. Mode of passing them, 378, 428, 560. To be revised by the President, 130, 151, 190, 205, 328, 348, 349, 358, 376, 378, 534, 560. To be examined by a council of revision, 128, 151, 153, 164, 344, 428. Those returned by the President may be repassed, 130, 151, 154, 328, 349, 376, 378, 379, 534, 536, 540, 560. Of attainder and ex post facto, 462, 485, 488, 528, 546, 561. Of exchange, damages on, 488. Origination of those about money, 129, 188, 274, 282, 310, 316, 375, 377, 394, 396, 410, 415, 422, 427, 452, 510, 529, 560. Alteration of those about money, 274, 316, 375, 377, 394, 410, 415, 420, 428, 510, 529, 560. Proportional vote on those about money, 266. Of credit, emission of by Congress, 130 428, 434. Of credit, emission of by the states, 131, 432, 484, 561.

BILLS OF EXCHANGE, provision in regard to, proposed in tits Constitution, 488.

BILL OF RIGHTS, proposal to insert one in the of Constitution, 538. Want of one objected to, 566, 573.

BINGHAM, WILLIAM, desires division of Confederacy, 96. Interview with Guardoqui relative to negotiations with Spain, 97.

BISHOP, 572.

BLACKS. See Slaves.

BLAIR, JOHN, attends the Convention, 123.

BLAND, THEODORICK, reports that Virginia cannot pay list quota, 33. Prefers the mode of raising revenue provided by the Confederation, 34. His views on a system of permanent revenue, 39, 41, 49, 52, 78. Advocates a commutation of half pay, 45. Advocates a decision by a majority of states in committee, 45. Proposes a tariff of specific duties, 51. Opposes a limitation as to the duration of impost, 52. Censures the conduct of Robert Morris, 69, 67. Remarks on the conduct of the American commissioners at Paris. 70, 74, 75. Proposes to submit the impost separately to the states, 73. Remarks on the proportion of freemen to slaves in fixing the contributions of the states, 79. Proposes the publication of Carleton’s letters refusing to suspend hostilities, 81. Opposes the proposed Convention of Eastern States, 81. Opposes a hasty ratification of the provisional articles, 86. Remarks on cessions of public hands by the states, 87, 92. Moves to erase the application to France for a loan of three millions, 88. Opposes a delivery of the prisoners till slaves are restored, 88. Remarks on the votes of the new states, 92. Voted for as President of Congress, 1.

BLOUNT, WILLIAM, attends the Federal Convention, 205. Agrees to sign the Constitution in the form proposed, 556.

BOND, PHINEAS, discussion as to his admission as consul, 101.

BOOKS, proposal for Congress to purchase, 27.

BORROWING, power of, given to Congress, 130, 378, 560.

BOUDINOT, ELIAS, represents New Jersey in Congress, 1. Is chosen president, 1. His views on a system of permanent revenue, 39.

BOUNDARY with the Spanish settlements, 97, 101. Between Virginia and Maryland, 114. Of the states on the west, 87, 93, 97, 101.

BRANCH. See House of Representatives. To be two in the legislature, 127, 129, 135, 166, 189, 195, 196, 205, 214, 216, 218, 242, 375, 377, 382, 558.

BRANDY, duty on, 61, 63.

BREACH of the peace, members of Congress may be arrested for, 130, 378, 560. Of the Articles of Confederation, its effect, 206, 214.

BREARLY, DAVID, attends the Federal Convention, 123. Desires the attendance of the New Hampshire delegates, 261. Advocates equality of representation of the states in Congress, 175. Objects to the ballot for the election of President being joint, 472. Advocates an equal vote of the states in electing the President, 473. Wishes the article providing for amendments of the Constitution struck out, 552.

BRIBERY, President to be removed for, 131, 380, 480, 507, 528, 563.

BRITISH, intrigue to create distrust among the allies, 65. Try to effect a separate convention, 76. Promote mediation of Russia and Austria, 1. Commission Mr. Oswald to treat, 16, 65. Sign preliminaries of peace, 74, 84. Refuse to suspend hostilities, 80. Issue proclamation of peace, 84. Commercial treaty with, proposed, 88, 101. Delivery of posts, negroes, &c., 88, 98, 575. Insidious conduct relative to the articles of treaty, 89, 98. Designs upon the western territory, 97. Operation of the definitive treaty on the states, 98. Their claims under the definitive treaty, 119, 575. Colonies, their state before the revolution, 109. Early design to tax the colonies, 110. Their irritating commercial regulations. 119, 567. Complain of violations of the definitive treaty, 119. Speculate on the downfall of the Confederation, 120. Their Constitution discussed in the Federal Convention, 163, 202, 229, 244, 284, 321, 347, 361, 387, 389. Their Parliament commented upon, 173, 176, 257, 404, 415. Their Constitution not a proper guide, 188, 215, 234, 237, 283, 387.

BROOKS, COLONEL, a deputy from the army to Congress, 21, 23. Views on the Federal Constitution, 572.

BROOM, JACOB, attends the Federal Convention, 23. Opposes au adjournment of the Convention without adopting some plan, 318. In favor of electing the President by electors chosen by the state legislatures, 324, 338. In favor of the President holding during good behavior, 325. In favor of nine years as the senatorial term, 242. Claims an equal vote for the small states in the Senate, 293. Thinks members of Congress should be paid by tits states, 426. In favor of a negative of Congress on the state laws, 468. Wishes officers in the army and navy excepted from the provision of ineligibility the Congress, 425.

BURGOYNE, GENERAL, 6, 78.

BURNET, MAJOR, 26, 58.

BUTLER, PIERCE, a delegate to the Federal Convention from South Care ins, 105. Attends the Federal Convention, 123. Proposes a rule to provide against absence from the Convention, and an improper publication of its proceedings, 125. Objects to reduce the power of the states, 138, 139. Approves of the distribution of the powers of government, 133. Views on the mode of electing the President, 365, 509. Objects to frequent elections of the President, 339. Desires the power of making war to be vested in the President, 438. In favor of a single executive, 149, 153. Opposes all absolute negative of the President, 153. Proposes to confer on the President a power to suspend laws for a limited time, 154. Urges a settlement of the ratio of representation in the Senate before deciding on that of the House, 240. Opposes compensation to senators, 187. Proposes that senators be eligible to state offices, 247. Proposes that the states be represented in the Senate according to their property, 275. Thinks that two thirds of the Senate should make peace without the executive, 524. Proposes that representation in the House of Representatives he according to contribution or wealth, 178, 181, 281, 290, 302, 303. Thinks representatives should be ineligible to office for a year after their term, 229, 230. Contends that blacks shall be equally included with willies in fixing the proportion of representation, 296, 302. Opposes an election of the representatives by the people, 137. Opposes too great a restriction of the right of suffrage for representatives, 386. Desires to increase the required period of residence of a representative in his district, 390. Opposes the admission of foreigners into Congress without a long residence, 398, 412. Thinks members of Congress should be paid by the states, 425. Thinks taxation should be apportioned to representation before a census, 452. Opposes the power of Congress to tax exports, 454, 461. Views as to the exclusive origination of money bills by the House, 189, 394. Does not desire to have a vote of two thirds to pass navigation acts, 490. Opposes the power of Congress to emit bills of credit, 434, 435. Thinks the regulation of the militia should be left to Congress, 444. Opposes the negative of Congress on the state laws, 174. Objects to inferior national tribunals 159, 331. Views on the payment of creditors under the Confederation, 469, 471, 476. Proposes that fugitive slaves should be delivered up, 487, 492. Wishes the seat of government fixed by the Constitution, 374. Thinks the assent of Congress should be required to the inspection laws of the states, 539. Thinks no new state should be erected within the limits of another without its consent, 493. Proposes a ratification by nine states as sufficient, 499.

C.

CADWALADER, LAMBERT, proceedings in regard to admission of a British consul, 101.

CANADA, proposal to add it to the United States, 45. Certain inhabitants of, ask for grant of land, 83. Indemnity to refugees from, 89.

CANALS, power of Congress to make them, 543.

CAPITA, vote per capita, in the Senate, 356, 377, 398, 539.

CAPITATION TAXES, how proportioned, 130, 379, 471, 545, 561.

CAPTURES, ordinance of the Confederation regulating there, 16, 18. Treaty with the Dutch concerning them, 27. Under the jurisdiction of the judiciary by the Constitution 128, 187, 192. Congress may legislate about, 130, 378, 436, 561.

CARBERRY, leader of the mutiny at Philadelphia, 94.

CARDS exempt from duty, 63.

CARLETON, SIR GUY, his evasive conduct in regard to the murderers of Captain Huddey, 2, 3. His correspondence relative to a settlement of the accounts of the prisoners, 4. Sends the preliminaries of peace, 74. Refuses to suspend hostilities, 80. Sends a proclamation of cessation of hostilities, 84.

CARMICHAEL, WILLIAM, letters from him, 1.

CAROLINA. See North Carolina and South Carolina.

CARRINGTON, EDWARD, views as to salaries, 99. Knows Mr. Madison’s sentiments, 575, 576.

CARROLL, DANIEL, represents Maryland in Congress, 1. Reports against the proposal of Pennsylvania to provide for public creditors within the state, 5. Advocates coercive measures against Vermont, 10. Proposes a letter to the governor of Rhode Island relative to Mr. Howell’s publications, 15. Considers an impost the only practicable tax, 55. Remarks on the conduct of the American commissioners at Paris, 74. Remarks on the proportion of freemen to slaves in apportioning the representation of the states, 79. Remarks on disbanding the army 89. Proposes that there be no foreign ministers except on extraordinary occasions, 90. Attends the Federal Convention. 287. In favor of choosing the President by electors chosen by lot from the national legislature, 369. Advocates an election of President by the people, or by electors chosen by them, 472, 473. Is in favor of a negative on the acts of Congress, 430. Doubts relative to the senators voting per capita, 357. Proposes that senators may enter their dissent on the journal, 407. Proposes to confine the yeas and nays to the House of Representatives, 407. Does not think the apportionment of representation before a census should be a rule for taxation, 451. Objects to members of Congress being paid by the states, 426. Thinks a vote of two thirds should he required to expel a member of Congress, 407. Remarks on hills of attainder and ex post facto laws, 463. Thinks more than a majority should be required in certain cases, 432. The discrimination as to money bills, a continual source of difficulty, 420. Opposes the provision to disqualify persons having unsettled accounts from being members of Congress, 379. Thinks the states should be guarantied against violence, 333. Thinks the states should be allowed to lay tonnage duties, to clear harbors, and build lighthouses, 548. Desires a regulation as to the trade between the states, 478, 503. Views in regard to the large territorial claims of the states, and the public lands, 494, 496. Views in regard to the ratification of the Constitution, 452, 499. Thinks an address to the people should accompany the Constitution, 546.

CARTHAGE, 162.

CASES within jurisdiction of the judiciary, 128, 131, 187, 188, 205, 208, 332, 376, 380, 462, 471, 483, 335, 563.

CATILINE, 153.

CENSUS, triennial, proposed under the Confederation, 64. As fixed by Congress in 1783, 82. Provision to be made for, in the Constitution, 129, 130, 375, 379. Senate to be apportioned after it by the representatives, 131. Representation to be apportioned by it, 279, 288, 294, 302, 305, 307, 316, 375, 377, 379, 559. Term of, 302, 305, 316, 375, 379, 559. Direct taxation to be apportioned by it, 304, 305, 306, 375, 379, 559. When the first one shall be made, 379, 451, 559.

CESSATION of hostilities, 80, 84.

CESSION. See Lands, Public.

CERTIFICATES, of loan-office, 54, 60, 83. To be given at a certain rate for paper money, 7, 14. To the army not to be paid to the states, 88. To the army for lands, 99.

CHARLEMAGNE, 200.

CHARLESTON, its evacuation, 25.

CHARTER, powers of Congress in regard to, 440.

CHESAPEAKE, jurisdiction over, 114.

CHIEF JUSTICE, to preside on the impeachment of the President, 507, 559. To be a member of the executive council, 442, 445, 446, 462. To be a provisional successor of the President, 480.

CHITTENDEN, THOMAS, 14, 25.

CINCINNATI, dangerous influence of that society, 367, 368.

CITIZEN, President to be, 462, 507, 562. Representatives to be, 129, 370, 376, 377, 389, 411, 559. Senators to be, 129, 370, 376, 377, 398, 414, 559. Of each state to have the privileges and immunities of the others 132, 381, 563. Of different states with in the jurisdiction of the national judiciary, 128, 187, 380, 483, 563. Committing crimes in another state to be deemed guilty as if they had been committed by a citizen of the state, 193, 381.

CIVIL LIST, reduction of, 99.

CLARK, ABRAHAM, objects to military measures against Vermont 9, 10. Vindicates the propriety of making public the negotiations with Sweden, 13. Proposes to exempt the American commissioners from the control of France, 18. Remarks on the conduct of the commissioners at Paris, 68, 73, 75. Proposes to submit the impost separately to the states, 73. Proposes to limit the apportionment, 77. Opposes the state debts being included in the general provision for the public debt, 78. Advocates an apportionment by numbers, 79. Urges the settlement of a system relative to public lands, 83. Remarks on dishandling the army, 89. Remarks on the cession of public lands, 91, 92. Proposes a removal of the military stores from Springfield, 97. Remarks on the admission of a British consul, 101. Remarks on the negotiation relative to Mississippi, 102, 104.

CLARK, GENERAL, seizure of Spanish property, 100.

CLASSES, Senate divided into, 129, 241, 245, 270, 377, 397, 541 559. States divided into, for the choice of senators, 171, 174.

CLEARANCE of vessels trading between the states, 479, 484, 502, 561.

CLINTON, GEORGE, his letter relative to Federal Constitution, 574.

CLYMER, GEORGE, represents Pennsylvania in the Congress of the Confederation, 1. Spoken of as secretary of foreign affairs, 16, 91. Attends the Federal Convention, 104. Objects to appointments by the Senate, 517. His views as to a duty on exports, 453. Prefers that the term “slaves” should not be introduced, 477. Views as to commercial regulations between the states, 487, 489. Views as to the ratification of the Constitution, 501, 534.

COCOA, duty on, proposed, 67.

COERCION of the states by the general government, 127, 140, 171, 192, 200, 217, 218.

COIN, to be regulated by Congress, 130, 378, 434, 560. Congress to legislate on counterfeiting, 130, 378, 486, 560. The only tender by the states, 131, 381, 484, 561. Not be made by the states, 381, 546, 561.

COLONIES, their state before the revolution, 109. British, early design to tax them, 110. Negative of Parliament on their laws, 173. Their mode of granting supplies, 180. Effect of the separation from Great Britain on their mutual independence, 213, 286. Trade with the West Indies proposed, 19, 119.

COLLECTION, of the duties and taxes by Congress, 130 191, 378, 432, 462, 506, 560. Of revenue, jurisdiction over, 188, 192. Of taxes, to be for debt and necessary expenses, 462, 506.

COLLECTORS, on the appointment of by Congress, 33, 63, 64, 65. Advocated by Mr. Hamilton, 35. Appointed by the states, 49, 54.

COLLINS, JOHN, opposes the commutation of half pay, 57.

COLUMBIA, DISTRICT OF, Congress may establish, and have jurisdiction over, a seat of government, 130, 511, 561. A seat of government to be fixed by the Constitution, 374, 511.

COMMAND of the army, and navy in the President, 131, 205, 380, 562. Of the militia in the President, 121, 380, 480, 562.

COMMERCE, effect, during the Confederation, of regulations of, upon the states, 113, 119, 120. Regulations of, proposed to be made at Annapolis, 113. How regulated among the states by the Confederation 115, 118, 119, 125. Could not be properly regulated under the Confederation, 127. To be regulated by Congress, 130, 192, 378, 433, 434, 534, 553, 560. Certain regulations of, to be by two thirds of Congress, 130, 379, 489, 552. Duties and imposts to be laid and collected by Congress, 130, 191, 378, 544, 560. Department of, 466. Regulations of that between the states, 378, 433, 454, 478, 484, 486, 489, 502, 538, 540, 545, 548, 561. With the Indians, 439, 462, 507, 560.

COMMERCIAL TREATY with the Dutch, 27. With Austria, 52. With Russia, 84, 89. With the British, 88, 101.

COMMISSION, of Mr. Oswald, 16. To be given to officers by the President, 131, 380. To be in the name of the United States, 446. When it expires in a recess of the Senate, 524, 563.

COMMISSIONERS on the boundary of Maryland and Virginia, 114. On the negotiations at Paris, 65. Control of France over them, 18, 36. Conduct of these at Paris, 65, 68, 73, 74. On the adjustment of debts of the states, 86. On the cession of western lands, 92. On the valuation of lands, 48.

COMMITTEE—In the Congress of the Confederation. On the resolutions of Virginia as to the export of tobacco, 48. On proceedings of executive departments, 80, 91. On a reorganization of the Court of Appeals under the Confederation, 2. On the differences between New York and Vermont, 4. On a valuation of land as a basis of taxation, 5, 24, 34, 43, 45, 46. On the franking privilege, 12. On the plan for permanent revenue, 18. On the memorial and deputation from the army 20, 21, 22, 23. On the finances, 21, 80, 91. On increasing foreign loans, 26. On the treaty of commerce with the Dutch, 27.On the purchase of books by Congress, 27. On the seizure of goods sent to prisoners under passport, 28, 50. On the means of restoring public credit, 57. On the discontents in the army at Newburg, 66. On a general arrangement of the government, consequent on the peace, 82. On a system relative to the public lands 84 92. On the ratification of provisional articles, 85. On the mutinous conduct of troops at Philadelphia, 92. Rule of voting in the committee of the whole, 45.—In the Federal Convention. On rules, appointed, 124. On rules, reports, 124. To be chosen by ballot, 125. Of the whole on Mr. Randolph’s resolutions, 128, 132. Of the whole reports a series of propositions, 189. Of the whole given up, 191. Of a member from each state to propose a plan of compromise between the large and small states, 270. Of detail to prepare a draught of a Constitution, 357. Of detail has the resolutions adopted by the Convention referred to it, 374. Of detail has the plans of Mr. Pinckney and Mr. Patterson referred to it, 376. Of revision of the draught of the Constitution as amended, 530. Of revision reports the second draught of a Constitution, 535.

COMMON DEFENCE to be provided for by the Constitution, 127, 506, 558.

COMMUTATION, allowance of, 30, 31, 44, 55, 57, 59, 61, 64, 72, 73, 128.

COMPACTS, between the states during the Confederation, 120. Insufficient for a union, 132, 206. Between the states under the Constitution, 131, 381, 548, 551. Effect of their violation by the parties, 207. Nature of those made by the state legislatures, 354, 356.

COMPENSATION, of the executive, 128, 131, 190, 192, 343, 370, 376, 380, 562. Increase or diminution of that of the executive not to be made during his term, 128, 192, 370, 376, 380, 562. Of the executive to be paid out of the national treasury, 343, 376. Of the executive not to be received from the states, 549. Of the electors of the President, 344. Of senators, 127, 130, 187, 190, 246, 271, 375, 378, 425, 560. Of Senators to be paid by the states, 187, 246, 378. Senators to receive none, 246, 271. Of representatives, 127, 130, 184, 189, 226, 230, 375, 378, 404, 425, 560. Of representatives to be paid out of the national treasury, 185, 225, 230, 375, 495, 560. Of members of Congress should be fixed, 184, 189, 227, 560. How that of members of Congress should be fixed, 404, 553, 580. Of members of Congress to be paid by the states, 210, 226, 378. Of the judges, 128, 131, 153, 156, 190, 192, 330, 376, 380, 481, 563. Increase or diminution of that of the judges not to be made during their term, 128, 131, 156, 190, 192, 330, 376, 380, 482, 563. Of all officers to be fixed by the representatives, 274. It ought to be sufficient, 136, 228.

COMPROMISE, of the vote of the large and small states in Congress, proposed by Mr. Ellsworth, 260. Dr. Franklin proposes one between the large and small states, 266. Mr. Pinckney proposes one between the large and small states, 270. Mr. Wilson proposes one between the large and small states, 266. Plan of, reported and discussed, 274, 282, 283, 310, 316, 317, 318, 394, 396, 411, 418, 511, 514, 529. Between the Northern and Southern States relative to slaves, navigation, and exports, 460, 461, 471, 489, 532.

CONDITIONS to be made with new states, on their admission, 381, 492.

CONFEDERACY, Achæan, 208. Amphictyonic, 200, 208. Dutch, 149, 154, 196, 208. German, 199, 204, 208, 252. Lycian, 264. Swiss, 201, 208.

CONFESSION OF TREASON, 451, 563.

CONFISCATION, proceedings of states upon, discussed, 26, 88, 89.

CONFEDERATION. See Articles of Confederation. Those of ancient times, 109 Proposed in the old Congress, 110. Great difficulties in adopting it, 111. Rule of voting under it, 45. Its powers of coercion towards Vermont, 12. Its inadequacy to furnish a revenue, 55. Encroachments of the states upon it, 173, 208. Its defects, 111, 115, 120, 126, 127, 133, 172, 180, 196, 197, 199, 210, 215, 219, 248. Its tottering condition, 106, 112. Amendment of it, 96, 106, 107, 191, 193, 354. Mode of its dissolution, 206, 214, 381. How far it is to be followed in the Constitution, 133. Fulfilment of its engagements, 128, 157, 332, 440, 441, 451, 463, 470, 471, 475, 564. Its legislative rights to be conferred on the new Congress 127, 139, 317.

CONGRESS OF THE CONFEDERATION, 1754, meets at Albany, 110. 1774, meets at Philadelphia, 110. Independence declared, 110. Articles of Confederation reported and debated, 110. Receives accounts of the mediation of Russia and Austria for peace, 1. Discusses the conduct of Col. H. Laurens, 6, 7. Discusses retaliatory measures for Huddy’s murder, 2. Members present at the meeting on the 4th November, 1782, 1. Discusses the principles to be adopted in exchanging prisoners, 1. Appoints a committee to reorganize the Court of Appeals, 2. Agrees to release Captain Asgill, 2. Discusses the propriety of authorizing military commanders to retaliate, 3. Appoints Mr. Jefferson minister to negotiate peace, 4. Discusses the report relative to Vermont, 4, 12. Dissents to the proposal of Pennsylvania to provide for the public creditors within the state, 5, 10, 29, 42. Appointment of a committee, and discussion on the mode of valuation of land as a basis of taxation, 24, 34, 43, 45, 46, 48, 50. Discusses the mode of crediting the states for redemptions of paper money beyond their quotas, 7. Discusses the mode of proceeding with Vermont, 8, 10. Discusses the conduct of Mr. Howell in his letter published in a Providence newspaper, 13. Sends a deputation to Rhode Island to urge the impost, 13. Discusses the depreciation of paper money, 14. Much excited from distrust of the conduct of France in the negotiations for peace 16, 17, 18, 19, 20. 1783, discusses the rule of secrecy in their proceedings, 22. Refuses to communicate Dr. Franklin’s letter relative to the negotiations about refugees and British debts, 26. Passes a resolution complimentary to General Greene, 26. Refuses to purchase books, 27. Represents to the states the difficulty of paying the public creditors, 29. Discusses the adjustment of arrears of the army and debts to public creditors, 30, 44, 59. Discusses a plan for raising a permanent and adequate revenue, 32, 39, 48, 49, 51, 52, 55, 72, 77, 87, 112. Discusses the rule of voting, 45, 61. Discusses the proceedings on the seizure of goods under passport, 50, 54. Suspends the departure of Mr. Jefferson, 50. Declines making its discussions public, 52. Its powers as to revenue discussed, 55. Discusses the establishment of duties on specific articles, 60. Refuses an abatement of the proportions of certain states, 62. Refuses to adopt any general system of taxation, except duties on foreign commerce, or to change the ad valorem impost for a general tariff, 64, 65. Discusses the conduct of the American commissioners towards France in negotiating the treaty, 65, 68, 73, 74. Grants licenses to protect the whale fisheries, 73. Receives news of the preliminary articles of peace being signed, 74. Discusses the proportion of whites and negroes in apportioning contribution, 79. Proposes to suspend hostilities, 80. Issues a proclamation of peace, 84. Proceedings on the provisional articles, 85, 86, 88, 90. Agrees to indemnify the officers of the army, 88. Refuses to pay the states the certificates due to the troops of their lines, 88. Discusses a commercial treaty with the British, 19, 119. Votes a statue of Gen. Washington, 88. Discusses the propriety and mode of disbanding the army, 89, 90. Discusses a system of foreign affairs, 90. Discusses a proposal to give the army certificates for land, 90. Resumes the discussion of the Virginia cession, 91, 92. Proceedings on the mutinous conduct of the troops at Philadelphia, 92, 93. Adjourns to Trenton, 94. Appoints a court to try the controversy between Connecticut and Pennsylvania, 102. 1787, proceedings relative to the insurrection in Massachusetts, 94. Proceedings relative to a Convention to revise the Federal Constitution, 96, 106. Discusses the effect of treaties on the states, 98, 107. Discusses the reduction of salaries and the civil list, 99. Discusses the proceedings of Spain about the Mississippi, 101, 102, 103, 105, 107. Discusses the admission of British consuls, 101. Discussion as to voting to suspend the use of the Mississippi, 103. Discussions relative to the Federal Constitution, 566, 568. 1788, elects Cyrus Griffin president, 572. Its inefficiency, 216, 248. Unable to counteract the commercial policy of the British, 119. Has lost confidence and influence at home and abroad, 120. Addresses the states on the necessity of harmony and yielding local considerations, 111. Not deemed so proper as a Convention to amend the Confederation, 116. Favors the idea of a convention as early us 1786, 118. Its legislative powers to be vested in the legislature under the Constitution, 127, 139, 190, 317, 375. Its executive powers to be vested in the executive tinder the Constitution, 128. To be continued until the new Constitution goes into effect, 128, 157. Its engagements to be fulfilled, 128, 157, 332. Its proceedings in regard to the new Constitution, 382, 501, 532, 541.

CONGRESS OF THE CONSTITUTION. See Members, Senate, Representatives. To consist of two branches, 127, 129, 135, 166, 189, 195, 196, 205, 213, 216, 218, 375, 377, 558. To consist of a House of Delegates and Senate, 129. To meet annually, 129, 377, 383, 385, 559. Qualifications of those entitled to elect members of, 129, 377, 385, 559. Representation in it to be in the saute proportion as direct taxation, 302, 316, 375, 379, 391, 559. Representation before a census, 129, 288, 290, 316, 375, 377, 559. Representation to be fixed by a periodical census, 129, 130, 131, 274, 279, 288, 294, 301, 302, 306, 307, 316, 375, 377, 379, 559. Slaves to be considered in fixing the proportion of representation, 181, 190, 192, 281, 288, 295, 302, 316, 375, 377, 379, 391, 559. Representation in it to be proportioned to the number of inhabitants, 129, 134, 190, 239, 312, 316, 375, 377, 379, 559. Representation in it to be equal among the states, 124, 134, 173, 175, 238. Vote of the states to be equal in it, 194. Its independence of the executive, 335. Danger of its encroachment on the oilier departments, 346. Property qualification of its members, 247, 272, 370, 378, 402. Disability of persons having unsettled accounts to be members, 370. Its members shall not be electors of President, 343, 562. Its permanent seat, 409, 561. Adjournment of both Houses, 130, 378, 406, 408, 560, 563. Privileges of, 130, 378, 404, 445, 510, 560. May alter the state regulations relative to elections of members of Congress, 378, 401, 542, 553, 559. To judge of the elections, qualifications, and returns, of its members, 378, 559. To legislate on the qualifications, pay, and privileges, of its members, 378, 402, 404. Compensation of, 130, 184, 187, 189, 205, 375, 378, 560. Absence of its members, 406, 560. Attendance of its members, 406, 559. Expulsion of its members, 378, 405, 560. Behavior of its members, 378, 406, 560. To veto by yeas and nays, 378, 407, 550. Its Journal, 130, 378, 407, 408, 560. The publication of its proceedings, 378, 407, 408, 512, 560. Negative of each House on the other, 377, 382. Mode of its vote by ballot, 382, 436, 472, 520. Mode of passing laws, 378, 428, 560. Its acts to be the supreme law, 131, 320, 379, 467, 564. Its acts may be negatived by the President, 130, 151, 190, 378, 560. Its acts subject to a council of revision, 128, 151, 153, 164, 344, 428. May reënact laws negatived by the executive or council of revision, 128, 130, 151, 154, 190, 328, 348, 376, 378, 429, 536, 540, 560. The specific enumeration of its powers, 139, 161, 172, 285, 317, 378, 560. May remove the President on application of the state legislatures, 147. To choose the President, 128, 140, 142, 145, 192, 322, 335, 358, 369, 375, 380, 472, 508, 510. To receive information from the President, 131, 380, 562. To appoint the judges, 128, 156, 188. To admit new states, 128, 132, 157, 192, 376, 381, 492, 493, 564. To provide for the amendment of the Constitution, 128, 157, 182, 190, 351, 376, 381, 564. To call a convention to amend the Constitution, 132, 199, 381, 498, 530, 564. To amend the Constitution with the assent of a certain number of the state legislatures, 132, 564. To call out the military force in certain cases, 128, 130, 140, 192, 195, 200. To negative state laws, 127, 132, 139, 170, 190, 195, 210, 215, 468, 249, 251, 321, 548. To vest the appointing power in the courts and heads of departments, 550. To fulfil the engagements of the Confederation, 128, 157, 190, 332, 440, 441, 451, 463, 469, 471, 475, 564. To make provision in regard to the proceedings of the electors of the President, 507, 520, 562. To possess the legislative powers of the Congress of the Confederation, 127, 139, 190, 317, 375. To legislate where the states are incompetent, 127, 139, 190, 195, 317, 320, 375, 462. Its general legislative powers, 130, 139, 190, 286, 317, 320, 375, 378, 432, 439, 445, 451, 462, 506, 560. To lay and collect duties and taxes, 130, 191, 378, 432, 462, 469, 506, 560. For what objects it may lay taxes, 379, 456, 462, 469, 471, 477, 506, 534, 560. The proportion by which they shall regulate direct taxes, 130, 302, 316, 379, 391, 559. The proportion in which they shall regulate capitation taxes, 130, 379, 545, 561. To lay no taxes on exports from the states, 130, 302, 379, 391, 561. To assent to imposts laid by the states, 131, 381, 561. Its proceedings on money bills, 129, 188, 274, 282, 310, 316, 375, 377, 394, 396, 410, 414, 427, 510, 529, 559. Vote on money bills to be in proportion to contribution, 266. Must make appropriations before money can be drawn from the treasury, 274, 316, 377, 428, 510, 529, 561. To raise taxes by requisitions, 453. To regulate commerce, 130, 191, 378, 433, 453, 552, 560. Two thirds of those present necessary to make commercial regulations, 130, 379, 461, 471, 189. To revise the inspection laws of the states, 540. To regulate commerce between the states, 378, 433, 451, 478, 484, 502, 560, 551. To establish a law relative to bankruptcy, 488, 503, 504, 560. To establish a law relative to damages on bills of exchange, 488. To borrow money, 139, 378, 560. To emit bills of credit, 130, 378, 434. To coin money, 130, 378, 434, 550. To regulate the value of coins, 130, 378, 434, 560. To secure the public creditors, and the payment of the public debt, 440, 451, 462, 463, 469, 475, 506, 5?0, 564. To assume the state debts, 441, 471. To publish the public accounts, 545. To establish post-offices, 130, 191, 378, 434, 550. To establish post-roads, 434, 560. To regulate stages on post-roads, 440. To establish post sad military roads, 130, 560. To make canals, 543. To make war, 379, 438, 561. To grant letters of marque and reprisal, 440, 510, 561, To raise armies, 130, 379, 442, 510, 561. To equip fleets, 130, 379, 443, 561. To arm, organize, and regulate the militia, 130, 440, 443, 464, 561. To subdue insurrection, 130, 132, 209, 332, 379, 437, 497, 534, 561. To call out the militia in certain cases, 130, 379, 467, 501. To repel invasions, 130, 233, 379, 467, 561. To legislate concerning captures, 130, 378, 436, 561. To hold and to provide dock-yards, magazines, arsenals, and fortifications, 130, 440, 561. To exercise jurisdiction in arsenals, dock-yards, and fortifications, 130, 511, 561. To make peace, 439. To enforce treaties, 130, 379, 467. To ratify treaties by law, 469, 523. All cases arising under its laws, within the jurisdiction of the national judiciary, 389, 563. To legislate concerning piracies and felonies at sea, 130, 331, 378, 436, 543, 561. To legislate on counterfeiting coin, 130, 378, 436, 5?0. To legislate on offences against the law of nations, 130, 378, 436, 561. To fix the place of trial, in certain cases, 484, 503. To punish treason, 130, 379, 447, 563. Not to pass bills of attainder, or ex post facto laws, 462, 488, 560. When it may suspend the habeas corpus, 131, 445, 484, 561. Its power relative to the migration and importation of slaves, 379, 457, 471, 477, 561. Its power of taxation on the migration or importation of slaves, 379, 457, 471, 477, 551. Its power of prohibiting the migration or importation of slaves, 379, 561. To consent to certain acts of the states, 131, 381, 484, 486, 548, 561. Not to interfere with the police of the states, or matters to which they are competent, 432, 564. To establish territorial governments, 439, 564. To regulate Indian affairs, 439, 462, 507, 560. To make conditions with the new states, relative to the public debt, 492. To make regulations relative to the public lands, 439, 497, 554. To fix the standard of weights and measures, 130, 378, 434, 560. To grant charters of incorporation, 440, 543. To secure copyrights and patents, 440, 511, 561. To promote science, 440, 511, 561. To establish a university and seminaries, 130, 440. To establish, and have jurisdiction over, a seat of government, 130, 373, 439, 561. To up-point to great offices, 442. To provide an occasional successor in a vacancy of the executive, 480, 562. To appoint a treasurer by ballot, 130, 378, 436, 542. To constitute inferior courts, 130, 131, 159, 190, 331, 378, 436, 560. To apply for the removal of the judges, 481. To require the opinions of the judges, 445. To make a great seal, 446. To enact sumptuary laws, 447. To direct a periodical census, 379, 451, 559. To call a convention to amend the Constitution, 498, 530, 551, 564. To make all laws necessary to execute its powers, 130, 379, 447, 561. Not to pass laws on religion, 131, 544. Not to abridge the liberty of the press, 131. To judge of the privileges of its members, 510, 559. First election of, under the new Constitution, 381, 503.

CONNECTICUT, her contest with Pennsylvania, 19, 208. Her delegates in Congress November, 1782, 1. Opposes a commutation of half pay, 45, 57. Is interested in the establishment of a general revenue, 59. Number of inhabitants and proportion of contribution in 1783, 82. Adopts exclusive commercial regulations, 119. Conduct doting the revolution, 265. Proceedings on the Federal Convention, 96, 106. Sends delegates to the Federal Convention, 124, 132, 144. Wishes the Constitution to be merely an enlargement of the Confederation, 191. Proportion of representation in the House of Representatives before a census, 129, 288, 290, 316, 375, 377. Proportion of representation in the Senate before a census, 129. Proportion of electors of President, 338, 339. Proceedings of the legislature on the Fed oral Constitution, 567. Opinions there on the Federal Constitution, 569, 571.

CONNECTICUT LINE, sends a deputation to Congress, 26.

CONSENT of Congress to certain acts of the states, 131, 381, 484, 486, 547, 561. Of Congress to amendments of the Constitution, 128, 157, 182, 564. Of both Houses to adjournments, 130, 378, 380, 406, 409, 560. Of the Senate to appointments, 131, 205, 328, 349, 507, 523, 562. Of the Senate to pardons, 480. Of the Senate to treaties, 205, 507, 522, 562. Of the states to amendments of the Constitution, 132, 381, 552, 564. Of Congress and the state legislature to the erection of a new state within the limits of a state, 493, 564. Of the states to purchases by Congress, 511, 561. Of the Congress of the Confederation to the Constitution, 532.

CONSOLIDATION, objected to by Mr. Madison, 107.

CONSTITUTION proposal for a Federal, 81, 96, 114. Proposed at various times, 117. Its necessity, 210, 225, 257, 258, 276. Proceedings of Congress upon it, 566. Mr. Madison’s suggestions of a new one, 107. Mr. Randolph’s plan of one, 126, 127, 189. Mr. Pinckney’s plan of one, 128. Mr. Patterson’s plan of one, 191. Mr. Hamilton’s plan of one, 198, 205. (Appendix, No. 5,) 584. Objects for which it should provide, 126, 192, 161, 176, 191, 193, 196, 234, 237, 242, 255, 262, 558. The adoption of a good one involves the fate of a republic and the states, 243, 245, 255, 258, 268. Whether it should derive its authority from the people or legislatures of the states, 352, 355. How far it should deviate from the Confederation, 132. It ought not to encroach unnecessarily on the states, 139, 168. Plan of, too extensive, 193, 194. Ought to operate on individuals, not on the states, 133. Its effect on the sovereignty of the states, 212. A national system adopted as the basis of it, 212. Compromise as to the rule of representation under it, 274, 282, 316, 317, 318, 394, 396. Whether representation under it ought to be by a different rule from the Confederation, 134, 190, 248, 250, 250. Resolutions adopted for its basis by the Convention 375. Committee of detail appointed to drought one, 357. Preamble of it, 376, 382, 558. First draught of it reported, 382. First draught of it referred after amendment to a committee of revision, 539. Second draught of it reported, 535. Second draught of it after amendment, ordered to he engrossed, 555. Final draught of it adopted, 558. Mode of signing it, 555. Mode of submitting it to the Congress of the Confederation, 541. Oath to support it to be taken by the President, 131, 380. Oath to support it to be taken by all officers, 128, 157, 183, 190, 351, 376, 564. Mode of its amendment, 131, 132, 157, 182, 190, 351, 376, 381, 498, 530, 564. Mode of its ratification, 128, 157, 183, 190, 199, 352, 376, 381, 452, 498, 501, 532, 541, 554. To be organized when ratified by a certain number of states, 132, 354, 381, 502, 564. Opinions of the states in regard to, 567, 570, 572, 573.

CONSULS, convention with France in regard to, 20. Admission of British, debated, 101. Cases of, under the jurisdiction of Supreme Court, 131, 380, 563. Appointment of, 524.

CONTRACTS, violated by state laws daring the Confederation, 119. Effect of those made by the state legislatures, 354. Private contracts not to be impaired by the states, 485, 561.

CONTRIBUTIONS (see Taxes) should form the rule of representation in the legislature, 127, 134, 178, 181, 260, 276, 281. Of the states, to be in proportion to the freemen and three fifths of the slaves, 192.

CONTROVERSIES, decision of those between the states, about territory or jurisdiction, 131, 379, 471. Between Pennsylvania and Connecticut, 19.

CONVENTION, of the Eastern States and NeW York proposed, 81, 117. At Annapolis, 96, 113, 114, 118. Proposals for the Federal, 96, 106, 114, 115, 117. Character of the Federal, 122. Members who attend it, 123, 124, 126, 132, 135, 140, 143, 144, 155, 174, 178, 214, 220, 287, 376. Assembles at Philadelphia, 123. Elects General Washington president, 123. Elects William Jackson secretary, 124. Adopts rules, 125, 126. Commences the main business, 126. Extent of its powers, 133, 193, 194, 195, 199, 206, 263, 268. Importance of its decision, 242, 244, 245. Determines to adopt a national, in preference to a federal system, 212. Goes into committee of the whole, 132. Committee of the whole repose a series of propositions, 189. Determines not to go again into a committee of the whole, 191, 382. Clashing opinions endanger its dissolution, 253. Prayers in it proposed, 254. Appoints a committee of one from each state, to suggest a compromise between the large and small states about representation, 277. Secession threatened by some of the members, 278, 317. Adjourns for an opportunity of making a compromise between the large and small st tree, 318. Informal meeting relative to tire representation of the large and small states, 319. Appoints a committee of detail to draught Constitution, 357. Its resolutions as adopted after discussion, 375. Refers its resolutions, as adopted, to the committee of detail, 374. Refers the plans of Mr. Pinckney and Mr. Randolph to the committee of detail, 376. Refers the amended draught of the Constitution to a committee of revision, 530. Second draught of a Constitution reported to it, 535. Adopts the final draught of the Constitution, 558, Gives directions as regards its Journals, 558. Provision for its expenses, 510, 512. Second Federal one proposed, 570.

CONVENTIONS OF STATES, Constitution to be submitted to, 128, 157, 183, 190, 199, 214, 352, 376, 38, 498, 501, 541, 552, 553, 564. Congress to call one to amend the Constitution, 381, 498, 551, 552, 553, 564.

CONVICTION, of treason, 130, 379, 450, 528, 563. Of the President of malpractice or neglect, 149, 199, 340, 376, 528. Of the President of treason, bribery, or corruption, 380, 507, 528, 563. Under an impeachment, 381, 507, 528, 529, 559. Pardon before it, 480.

CONVICTS, introduction of those from abroad, 478.

COPPER a legal trader, 131.

COPYRIGHT, powers of Congress in regard to, 440, 511, 561.

CORNWALLIS aids Col. Laurens in procuring a British passport, 1. Proposal to exchange him for Col. Laurens, 7. Remarks on his character and conduct, 6.

CORPORATIONS, power of Congress, under the Constitution, in regard to, 440, 543. United States to be one, 446.

CORRESPONDENCE of Mr. Madison prior to the Convention of 1787, 106 to 108. After the adjournment of the Federal Convention, 566 to 576. Between the President and state executives, 131, 380, 479.

CORRUPTION, President to be removed for, 131, 340, 380, 480, 528, 563. Heads of departments to be removed for, 446. Of the state legislatures, 421, 424. Of blood not to be worked by attainder, 379. Of the British government, 152, 153, 229. Influence of it, 200.

COUNCIL, EXECUTIVE, 141, 150, 165, 442, 446, 462, 480, 507, 522, 525.

COUNCIL OF REVISION, to consist of executive, and a convenient number of the judiciary, 108, 128, 151, 153, 155, 164, 165, 344, 428.

COUNCIL OF STATE, 446.

COUNSELLORS in France receive no salary, 146

COUNTERFEITING, Congress to legislate upon, 130, 378, 436, 560. Pardon of, 480.

COURTS, (see Judiciary, Supreme Court, Inferior Courts,) interfered with by state laws during the Confederation, 119. Of appeals under the Confederation, 2.

COURT MARTIAL, 464.

COTTON CARDS, exempt from duty, 63.

CREDENTIALS of the members of the Federal Convention, 124.

CREDIT, emission of bills of, by Congress, 378, 434. Bills of, not to be emitted by the states, 131, 381, 484, 561. To be given by the states to the records and judicial proceedings of each other, 132, 381, 488, 504, 563. That of the Confederation to be secured by the Constitution, 440, 451, 463, 469, 471, 475, 564.

CREDITORS, proposal of Pennsylvania to provide for those within the state, 5, 10, 11. Mr. Morris represents the injustice done them, 29 Congress pledges itself to every exertion for their payment, 30, 31. Discussion as to the mode of paying, 32, 51. Proposal to provide for the army first, 51, 52, 53. Remarks on the original and subsequent holders of certificates, 54. British provided for by the treaty, 575. Public, unprovided for in 1787, 119. Injured by state laws during the Confederation, 120

CRIME, to be tried in the state where committed 131, 381, 484, 563. To be tried in the state courts, 208. To be defined by Congress, 436

CRIMINALS, fugitive, to be delivered up to one another by the States, 132, 381, 487, 563. To be tried in the state where the offence is committed, 131, 381, 484, 563.

CROMWELL, 153

CURRENCY, the pretext for one of paper cut off, 435

D.

DAMAGES, provision for those on bills of change, 488.

DANA, FRANCIS, proposes to negotiate a commercial treaty with Russia, 84, 89. A delegate to the Federal Convention from Massachusetts, 106. Course in the Convention of Massachusetts for ratifying the Federal Constitution, 572.

DANE, NATHAN, views in regard to a Federal Convention, 96, 566, 568.

DAVIE, WILLIAM R., attends the Federal Convention, 123. Proposes an impeachment of the President for malpractice or neglect, 149. Considers the impeachment of the President an essential provision, 340. His views relative to the duration of the executive term, 360, 369. His views on the ratio of representation, 265, 281 Insists on slaves being included in the ratio of representation, 303.

DAYTON, JONATHAN, attends the Federal Convention, 220. Objects to a joint ballot in Congress to elect the President, 472. Desires an equal vote of the states In Congress for the President, 473. Advocates the compensation of senators ont of the national treasury, 246. Desires an equal vote of the states in the Senate, 312. Opposes the scheme of an equal vote in the Senate and a proportional one in the House, 267. Proposes an equal vote of the states in the House, 249. Thinks that representation should be proportioned to the free inhabitants, 392. Assents to restrictions on Congress as to an army, which do not interfere with proper preparations for war, 443. Desires to limit the authority of Congress over the militia to those in the actual service of the United States, 465. Wishes a latitude given to the power to protect the states from invasion and rebellion, 497. Fears the right of the states to lay duties for inspection, 539. Thinks the Constitution should be ratified by ten states, 500. Signs the Constitution, 565. DEATH of the President provided for, 131. 380. 480, 507, 522, 562. Of a senator provided for, 129, 277, 395, 559. Of a representative provided for, 395, 559.

DEBATES, (see Repeats,) freedom of, 130, 378.

DEBT, mode of liquidating it during the Confederation discussed, 39, 49, 51, 55, 59, 62, 77 Pennsylvania proposes to provide for that within the state, 5, 10. Congress discusses its adjustment, 13, 32. Proposes to fund that due to the army, 23. State proceedings relative to British debts discussed, 26. Amount of public, in 1783 39, 60, 82. Mode of ascertaining that of the states, 86. Difficulty of Congress in providing for it during the Confederation, 113, 119, 126. Provision for it under the Constitutions 440, 462, 506. Security of that of the Confederation, 440, 441. 451, 463, 469, 471, 475, 564. Assumption of the, of the states, 441. Rule for adjusting it, 452, 471 Taxes to be laid for the payment of, 469, 560. Conditions in regard to it with the new states, 381, 492. Must be paid in gold, silver, or copper, 131, 380, 484, 546, 561.

DECLARATION, of independence, 110, 213, 286. Of war by the Senate, 131, 439. Of war by Congress, 379, 439, 561.

DEFECTS in the Confederation, 111, 115, 126.

DEFENCE, common, to be provided for by the Constitution, 127, 132, 506, 558.

DEFINITION, of treason, 130, 379, 447, 563. Of the respective powers of Congress and the states should be made, 173. Of offences by Congress, 437, 543, 562.

DELAWARE. Her delegates in Congress, November, 1782, 1. Conduct of refugees there, 58. Is interested in a general revenue, 59. Number of inhabitants and proportion of contribution in 1783, 82 Desires to confine Virginia within the Alleghany, 93. Votes for Mr. Boudinot as president, 1. Necessity of commercial regulations with Pennsylvania, 114. Sends delegates to the Convention at Annapolis, 115. Sends delegates to the Federal Convention, 123, 124, 126. Prohibits the delegates from changing the equal vote of the states, 124, 134, 191. Ratifies the Federal Constitution, 569. Proportion of representation in the House of Representatives before a census, 129, 288, 290, 316, 375, 377, 547, 559, (Appendix,) 584. Secession of her delegates threatened, if an equal suffrage is refused to the states, 134. Her defective representation during the Confederation, 210. Proportion of electors of President, 338, 339.

DELEGATES, (see Representatives,) meet at Albany in 1754, 110. Meet at Philadelphia in 1774, 110. In the Congress of the Confederation, 1. Virginia House of, 113. Appointed to meet at Annapolis in 1786, 113, 115. To the Federal Convention, 122, 123, 126, 132, 135, 140, 144. From Virginia, take the initiative in the Federal Convention, 121.

DELIVERY, of posts, negroes, &c., under the British treaty, 88, 89. Of fugitives from justice, 132, 381, 487, 563. Of fugitive slaves, 487, 492, 563.

DEMAND for fugitive criminals by the state executives to be complied with, 132, 381, 487, 563.

DEMOCRACY, excessive spirit of, remarked upon, 136, 138, 158, 160, 557. American people in favor of it, 154, 223, 236, 466. Its advantages, 161. Its evils, 162, 203.

DEPARTMENTS, directions to, should be more precise, 4. Examination of that of finance, 80, 91. Reorganization of, 82, 99. Independence of, under the Constitution, 138, 141, 142, 143, 148, 153, 156, 155, 327, 334, 341, 344, 359, 429, 473, 515, 519, 522. Executive, under the Constitution, 165, 205, 335, 349, 442, 445, 445, 462, 507, 525, 562.

DEPRECIATION of paper money, 112, 120. Not allowed to the states redeeming beyond their quota, 7. Discussion on the rate of, 14, 18, 54.

DEPUTATION, from the army sent to Congress, 21, 23, 26. From Congress to Rhode Island to urge the impost, 13.

DEPUTIES, meet at Albany in 1754, 110. Meet at Philadelphia in 1774, 110. Appointed to meet at Annapolis in 1786, 113.

D’ESTAING, COUNT, sends a cutter with news of peace, 74.

DETAIL, committee of, appointed to draught a Constitution, 357, 374, 376. Committee of, reports a draught of a Constitution, 362.

DICKINSON JOHN, proceedings of, relative to goods sent to prisoners under passports, 29. Proceedings of, relative to the mutinous conduct of the troops at Philadelphia, 92, 93. Reports the Articles of Confederation, 110. Attends the Federal Convention, 126. Views on the election of the President, 367, 514, 515. Advocates the removal of the President by Congress on an application of the states, 147. Opposes a strong executive, 148. His remarks on a monarchy, 148. Eulogizes the British constitution, 163, 418. Thinks the responsibility of the executive should be strictly guarded, 165. Desires an executive council, 525. Objects to the unlimited power of appointment in the President, 474. Wishes the provisions in regard to a successor of the President to be less vague, 480. Advocates an election of the Senate by the state legislatures, 163, 166, 168. Advocates an equal vote of the states in one legislative branch, 148, 191. Wishes the Senate to be like the House of Lords, 166. Advocates a representation in the House of Representatives according to inhabitants or property, 149. Wishes a representation in the House of Representatives to be proportioned to contribution, 178. Advocates an election of the representatives by the people, 163. Prefers triennial elections of the representatives, 224. Opposes a qualification as to property for members of Congress, 371. Wishes to restrict the right of electing representatives to freeholders, 386. Wishes to define more exactly the residence of a representative in his district, 390. Advocates the origination of money bills by the representatives, 418. Thinks that members of Congress should be paid out of the national treasury, 426. Wishes a limitation on the number of representatives of the large states, 452. Objects to an absolute prohibition of duties on exports, 454. Views on the power of Congress to prohibit the importation of slaves, 459, 477. Wishes a provision against retrospective laws, 488. Wishes the great appointments made by Congress, 442. Objects to surrendering to Congress the power over the militia, 444. Prefers a ratification of treaties by law, 470. Wishes the respective powers of Congress and the states exactly defined, 173. Advocates a national judiciary distinct from that of the states, 159. Proposes a removal of the judges on application of Congress, 481. Objects to a power in the judges to set aside the laws, 379. Wishes the provision in regard to treason to be explicit, 448, 450. Views as to the claims of territory of the large states, 493, 496. Thinks that the general government should interfere to protect a state on the application of its executive, 497. Views as to the ratification of the Constitution, 498. Signs the Constitution, 565.

DIET, GERMAN, 200, 204, 219, 236, 252, 287.

DIGBY, ADMIRAL, sends proclamation of cessation of hostilities, 84.

DIMINUTION, of pay of the President not to be made during his term, 128, 131, 380, 562. Of pay of judges not to be made during their term, 128, 131, 156, 199, 330, 380, 482, 563.

DIRECT TAXES. See Taxes.

DISABILITY, of President provided for, 131, 380, 480, 507, 520, 562. Of electors of President, 343, 515, 520, 562. Of members of Congress to hold office, 127, 130, 185, 189, 190, 229, 230, 247, 375, 420, 503, 505, 542, 560. Of members of Congress to be reëlected for a certain term, 127, 186. Of persons to be members of Congress who have unsettled accounts, 370. Of persons to be members of Congress without a property qualification, 370. Of electors of representatives, 385. Of persons convicted on impeachment, 381, 559. Of officers to accept presents or titles, 467, 561.

DISCHARGE of soldiers, 87.

DISCIPLINE of militia by Congress, 130, 464, 561.

DISPUTES between the states about territory or jurisdiction to be decided by the Senate, 131, 379.

DISSENSIONS, to be guarded against by the Constitution, 26, 27. Dangers of, in a numerous executive, 150.

DISSENT of senators to be entered on the Journal, 407.

DISTRIBUTION of the powers of government, 132, 143, 293, 375, 377, 382.

DISTRICTS, senatorial, to be made over the Union, 138, 169, 174, 205. For electors of President, 145.

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, Congress may establish, and have jurisdiction over a seat of government, 130, 374, 561. Necessity of a permanent seat of government, 409.

DISORDER in Congress, 378, 406, 560.

DISUNION, danger of, 56, 120, 127, 200, 204, 210, 255, 259, 276, 466. How to be effected, 206.

DIVISION of the territory of the states, 378, 439, 441, 493, 550, 564.

DOCK-YARDS, may be provided by Congress, 130. Jurisdiction in, to be exercised by Congress, 130, 511, 561.

DOMAIN. See Lands, Public.

DOMESTIC, (see Debt,) dissensions to be guarded against by the Constitution, 126, 127. Commerce to be regulated by Congress, 130, 378, 433, 454, 478, 484, 486, 489, 502, 560. Insurrection to be subdued by Congress, 130, 132, 332, 379, 497, 535, 551, 561, 564. Affairs of the states not to be interfered with, 171. Affairs, department of, 442, 446, 462.

DRAUGHT of a constitution, submitted by Mr. Pinckney, 128. Of a constitution, reported by the committee of detail, 377. Submitted, after amendment, to a committee of revision, 530. Second one reported by the committee of revision, 535. Of a constitution, placed in Mr. Madison’s hands by Mr. Hamilton, (Appendix, No. V.) p. 584.

DRAWBACK on salt fish discussed, 84.

DURATION, of executive, 128, 142, 149, 190, 205, 325, 334, 339, 358, 360, 367, 375, 380, 472, 507, 512, 518, 520, 562. Of residence and citizenship of the President, 462, 507, 521, 562. Of House of Representatives, 127, 129, 183, 189, 205, 224, 375, 377, 558. Of Senate, 127, 129, 186, 190, 205, 241, 375, 377, 559. Of citizenship necessary for members of Congress, 377, 389, 398, 559. Of residence necessary for members of Congress, 377, 389, 398, 559. Of judiciary, 128, 156, 190, 205, 330, 369, 376, 380, 481, 563. Of laws for revenue, 462.

DUTCH, negotiate a treaty of commerce, 27. Inaccuracies in the treaty with, 27, 38. Amount of debt due to, in 1783, 82. Controversy in regard to treaty with, 119. Civil commotions among, 575. Distraction caused among them by plurality of military heads, 149. Increase of executive power there, 154. Evils of their confederation, 196, 201, 219, 236, 252, 287. Evils of the stadtholder not being impeachable, 342.

DUTIES, refused by Rhode Island, 13. Advantage of, as a mode of taxation, 40, 49. Specific, pro posed, 51, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66. On imposts not attainable under the Confederation, 127. To be laid and collected by Congress, 130, 791, 378, 381, 506, 543, 560. On exports, 130, 302, 357, 379, 454, 534, 548, 561. None to be laid by the states without the assent of Congress, 131, 381, 548, 561. On the migration and importation of slaves, 379, 457, 471, 561. To be laid, to pay debts and necessary expenses, 462, 469, 475, 560. On trade between the states, 479, 484, 486, 502, 538, 540, 545, 548, 561. To be uniform throughout the United States, 543, 545, 560.

DYER, ELIPHALET, opposes drawing on France in advance, 22, 23. Opposes collection of taxes by Congress, 33. Objects to course of Congress towards Vermont, 44. Views as to commutation of half pay, 44, 57, 72, 73. Remarks on conduct of the American commissioners at Paris, 73. Advocates including expenses incurred by states in provision for public debt, 78. Opposes draw-back on salt fish, 84. Urges liberation of prisoners, 86.

Remarks on disbanding army, 89.

E.

ECONOMY, its necessity to preserve the Constitution, 145.

ELECTION, of the President by the legislature, 128, 140, 142, 145, 190, 192, 322, 335, 358, 365, 369, 375, 380, 382, 472, 509, 510, 513. Of the President by the people, 149, 143, 145, 322, 335, 364, 368, 472. Of the President by the Senate, 144, 507, 508, 509. Of the President by electors chosen by the people, 144, 336, 339, 364, 473, 507, 512, 520, 562. Of the President by electors chosen by the state legislatures, 324, 338, 357, 359, 368. Of the President by electors chosen by lot from the national legislature, 360, 368. Of the President by the representatives, 519, 520, 521. Of the Vice-President, 507, 562. Of senators by the executive, 167, 272. Of senators by the state legislatures, 137, 138, 163, 166, 189, 239, 377, 559. Of senators by the people, 138, 187, 169, 205, 239 Of senators to be by the representatives, 127, 129, 137, 160. Of representatives to be regulated by the states, 129, 223, 377, 559. Of representatives to be judged by the House, 129, 378. Of representatives by the state legislatures, 135, 137, 177, 223, 266. Of representatives by the people of the states, 127, 129, 135, 136, 161, 189, 205, 223, 558. Of representatives, how often, 127, 129, 183, 189, 205, 375, 377, 558. To fill vacancies in Congress, 129, 377, 395, 559. To be judged of by each House, 129, 378, 559. Mode of, when by ballot in Congress, 382, 507. Qualification of electors in that of representatives, 377, 385, 559. Of members of Congress to be regulated by the states, subject to the alteration of Congress, 377, 401, 559. Contested, 223. Of a treasurer by Congress, 130, 376, 435, 542. First tinder the new Constitution, 381, 502.

ELECTORS, of President to be chosen by the state executives, 174, 337, 363, 364, 368. Of President to be chosen by lot from the national legislature, 360. Of President to be chosen by the people, 144, 205, 336, 339, 368, 473, 507, 512, 520, 562. Of President to be chosen by the state legislatures, 324, 338, 357, 359, 368. Ratio of those of President among the states, 338, 339, 507, 520, 562. Of President not to hold office, 343, 515, 562. Of President not eligible to that office, 343. Of President how paid, 344. Of senators, 205. Of representatives, their qualifications, 129, 377, 382, 385, 559.

ELLSWORTH, OLIVER, opposes disclosure of negotiations relative to confiscation on and British debts, 26. Proposes a system of permanent state funds in preference to a general revenue by Congress, 34. Objects to crediting the states with duties they collect, 41. His views on systems of permanent revenue, 41. On committee to organize peace establishment, 82. Urges ratification of provisional articles, 86. Urges fulfilment of provisional articles about tories, 88. Remarks on disbanding the army, 89. Remarks on cession of public lands, 91, 92. Confers with president of Pennsylvania on mutinous conduct of troops. 92. Attends the Federal Convention, 124. Objects to the term national government, 214. Wishes the agency of the states maintained, 239, 269, 316. Urges a compromise between the large and small states as to their vote in Congress, 260. Vindicates the conduct of Connecticut during the revolution, 265. Approves of the compromise between the large and small states, 278, 316, 394. Views as to the mode of appointing the President, 338, 362, 363. Approves of a council of revision composed of the President and judges, 344. Wishes an executive council, 442. Wishes the senators to be paid by the states, 246. In furor of one vote of each state in the Senate, 182. His views on the mode of filling vacancies in the Senate, 395. Objects to making the number of representatives large, 292. Desires to fix the ratio of representation and taxation by the number of freemen and three fifths of the slaves, until altered by the legislature, 303. Thinks it unnecessary that direct taxation be regulated by representation before as well as after a census, 307. In favor of anneal election of representatives, 183, 225. Wishes the representatives to be paid by the states, 225, 228. Objects to a free-bold qualification for electors of representatives, 385, 386. Objects to requiring a very long term of previous residency for a representative, 390. Does not wish the period of citizenship necessary for members of Congress to be too far extended, 398. Thinks it best to leave the provision in regard to a property qualification of members of Congress to the legislature, 403, 404. Opposes a quorum in Congress being less than a majority, 406. Objects to the yeas and nays being required in Congress, 407. Approves of ineligibility of members of Congress to office, 424. Wishes the pay of members of Congress to be fixed by the Constitution, 425, 427. Objects to a disqualification of persons having unsettled accounts as members of Congress, 373. Wishes the day of the meeting of Congress to be fixed, 383, 384. Is opposed to a tax on exports, 433, 454. Wishes to withhold from Congress the power of making paper money, 435. Desires to limit the interference of the general government to subdue rebellion, 438. Remarks on a provision for requiring Congress to assume the state debts, 441. Views as to the extent to which the power over the militia should be given to Congress, 443, 444, 464, 465. Thinks sumptuary laws unnecessary, 447. Views as to the provision relative to treason, 448, 450. Wishes a rule provided for adjusting the debts of the states, 452. Views on the apportionment of taxation before a census, 452. Approves of the prohibition of Congress to tax the migration or importation of slaves, 457, 458. In favor of a compromise on the subject of navigation, exports, and slaves, 461. Remarks on ex post facto laws, 462. Views in regard to the fulfilment of the engagements of the Confederation, 463. Opposes a negative of Congress on the state laws, 468. Prefers that the nomination of judges should be by the Senate, subject to the President’s approval, 350. Prefers a ratification of the Constitution by the state legislatures, 214, 352.

EMBARGO, 455, 486.

EMANCIPATION, provision in regard to it, 357.

EMIGRANTS, restrictions on them, 389, 398, 411.

EMISSION, plans for fixing its value and redeeming it, 7, 14. Difficulties in regard to, under the Confederation, 112, 120. Of bills of credit by Congress under the Constitution, 130, 378, 434. Of bills of credit by the states, 131, 171, 381, 484, 546, 561. Of paper money, an aggression by the states, 208.

ENCOURAGEMENT, of authors, 440, 561. Of agriculture, 446. Of manufactures, 446, 486.

ENCROACHMENT, of the general government on the states, 139, 161, 164, 168, 170, 176, 217, 221, 224, 238, 249, 320, 462, 535. Of the states on the general government, 168, 172, 199, 200, 207, 208, 221, 248, 257. Of the executive on the Senate, 186. Of the executive, legislature, and judiciary, on each other, 344, 429. Of the legislature on other departments, 346, 361, 430, 473.

ENEMY, captures from, 128, 130, 378, 561. Adherence to, constitutes treason, 130, 379, 448, 563.

ENFORCEMENT, of treaties by Congress, 130, 379, 467.Of laws by the executive, 343, 376, 380, 563.

ENGAGEMENTS of the Confederation to be fulfilled, 128, 157, 190, 332, 440, 451, 463, 469, 471, 475, 564. Assumption of those of the states, 441, 451, 471.

ENLISTMENT of troops on account of tits insurrection in Massachusetts, 94, 99.

ENTRANCE of vessels trading between the states, 479, 484, 502, 545, 561.

ENUMERATION, triennial, proposed under Confederation, 64. Made by Congress in 1783, 82. Of the people to be made under the Constitution, 129, 130, 279, 288, 294, 302, 306, 316, 375, 377, 379, 451, 545, 559. Of the powers of Congress, 139, 286, 317, 378, 560.

EQUALITY. Mr. Madison objects to it tinder the Federal Constitution, 107. Of the vote of each state tinder the Constitution insisted on by Delaware, 124, 134, 173. Of the vote of each state in the Convention discussed, 125, 194. Of senators from each state, 138, 181, 260, 261, 274, 317, 356, 375, 377, 416, 559. Of the vote of each state in the Senate, 274, 285, 311, 317, 394, 552, 559. In the proportion of representation for black and white inhabitants contended for, 296, 301, 305. Of representation of each state in Congress, 134, 173, 175, 249, 250. Of ratio of representation in both branches of Congress, 182, 190, 195, 251, 259. Of vote in Congress when balloting for a President, 473. Of vote in Congress in certain specified cases, 266. Of the regulations of trade between the states, 479, 560.

EQUALIZATION of the states proposed, 194, 211, 280.

EQUESTRIAN STATUE proposed of Gen. Washington, 88.

EQUIPMENT of fleets by Congress, 130, 379, 561.

EQUITY courts of, to be established by Congress, 131. Judicial power to extend to, 481, 563.

ERECTION of fortifications by Congress, 130.

ESTABLISHMENT, of peace discussed, 82. Of a scat of government, 130, 439. Of the judiciary by Congress, 131, 159, 376, 378, 560. Of post-offices by Congress, 130, 378, 434, 560. Of post and military reads by Congress, 130, 434, 440, 560. Of a university and seminaries by Congress, 130, 440. Of institutions to promote science, 440. Of territorial governments, 439, 564.

EUROPE, effect of the American revolution on, 575.

EUSTIS, Dr., letter, relative to Mr. Hamilton’s plan of a constitution, (Appendix, No. V.,) 584.

EVACUATION, of Charleston, 25. Of the posts held by the British, 88.

EVIDENCE required in cases of treason, 130, 379, 449, 563.

EXCHANGE, debates as to the mode of exchanging prisoners, I. Of Cornwallis for Col. H. Laurens, 6, 7. Partial exchanges disapproved, 1, 25. Provision in the Constitution on relative to bills of, 488.

EXCISE, proposed, 40. To be laid and collected by Congress, 130, 378, 432, 506, 560.

EXCLUSIVE jurisdiction of Congress in dock-yards, arsenals, and fortifications, 130, 511, 561. Jurisdiction of Congress at the seat of government, 130, 373, 439, 511, 512, 561. Power of declaring war in the Senate, 131. Power of making treaties in the Senate, 131, 379. Power of appointing ambassadors in the Senate, 131, 379, Power of appointing supreme judges in the Senate, 131, 376, 379. Origination of money bills, 188, 316, 375, 377, 394, 410, 415, 427, 452, 510, 560. Power of the United States relative to treason, 488.

EXECUTION, of its general powers by Congress, 130, 379, 561. Of the laws by the President, 343, 376, 380, 563. Of judgments of other states, 488, 594.

EXECUTIVE, directions to, should be more precise, 4. Conduct of that of Pennsylvania in regard to the mutiny of the troops, 92, 93. Mr. Madison’s views of a national one, 108. Mr. Jefferson’s opinions of a national one, 573. Style and title of it, 131, 380, 471. Its flower ought not to be dangerously extended, 140. Its independence of the other branches, 141, 142, 143, 165, 334, 335, 341, 345, 473, 509, 510. Danger of making it too powerful, 148, 153, 155. Necessity of strengthening it, 334. Necessary to support it in a republic, 164. Responsibility should be enforced, 165. An hereditary one the best model, 203. Age and qualifications, 462, 507, 562. Election by the legislature, 128, 140, 142, 145, 190, 192, 322, 335, 358, 365, 369, 375, 380, 382, 472, 508, 510, 513. Election by the people, 142, 143, 145, 205, 322, 335, 364, 368, 472. Election by the Senate, 144. Election of, by electors chosen by the state executives, 174, 337, 364, 368. Election by electors chosen by the people, 144, 205, 338, 339, 368, 473, 507, 512, 520, 552. Election by electors chosen by the state legislatures, 324, 338, 357, 368. Election by the state legislatures in a certain ratio, 359. Election by electors, taken by lot from the national legislature, 360. Number of which it shall consist, 140, 149, 165, 192, 195, 197, 205, 322, 358, 375, 380, 471, 562. Term of office, 128, 131, 140, 142, 149, 190, 192, 203, 204, 205, 325, 335, 338, 342, 358, 359, 367, 369, 380, 472, 507, 512, 562. Compensation, 128, 145, 190, 192, 369, 376, 380, 549, 562. Compensation not to be increased or diminished during his term, 128, 131, 153, 192, 369, 376, 380, 562. Reëligibility, 128, 131, 140, 142, 149, 190, 192, 325, 333, 335, 363, 369, 375, 380, 472, 473, 512, 517. To form one of the supreme powers of the government, 128, 129, 132, 375, 377, 382. To execute the laws, 128, 131, 142, 190, 343, 369, 376, 380, 563. To possess the executive powers of the Congress of the Confederation, 128. To possess, with a certain number of the judiciary, a power of revising the acts of the legislature, 128, 151, 155, 164, 344, 428. To possess a power to negative acts of Congress, 130, 151, 190, 205, 328, 348, 349, 378, 430, 534, 536, 560. To possess power of suspending laws for a limited time, 154. To have a council, 141, 150, 165, 442, 445, 446, 462. To give information to Congress, 131, 380, 563. To recommend measures to Congress, 131, 380. To commission officers, 131, 380, 563. To receive ambassadors, 131, 380, 479, 563. To correspond with the state executives, 131, 380, 479. To grant pardons and reprieves, 131, 380, 480, 549, 562. To command the army and navy, 131, 192, 205, 380, 562. To command the militia, 131, 205, 343, 380, 480, 562. To take an oath, 131, 380, 481, 562. To appoint to office, 141, 199, 205, 334, 369, 376, 380, 474, 550, 562. Danger of the power of appointment, 154, 474. Responsibility in making appointments, 350. Not to appoint to offices not previously created by law, 474, 528. To make appointments with the consent of the Senate, 131, 329, 349, 507, 523, 562. To appoint the senators, 167. To appoint the heads of departments, 446. To appoint the judges, 155, 328, 350, 507. Danger of allowing him to appoint the judiciary, 351. To remove the judges on application of Congress, 481. To convene the Senate separately, 530. To adjourn Congress in certain cases, 380, 409, 563 To make war, 439. To consult the heads of departments, 442, 446, 462, 562. To consult the supreme judges, 445. To make treaties with the advice of the Senate, 205, 507, 522, 562. To possess a property qualification, 371, 403. May be impeached, 131, 149, 205, 340, 369, 376, 380, 507, 562. To be removed by Congress on application of the states, 147. May be removed from office, 131, 147, 149, 192, 195, 340, 369, 376, 380, 480, 562. His successor in case of vacancy, 131, 380, 480, 507, 522, 562. Ratio of electors of, among the states, 338, 339, 507, 562. Election of the first under the new Constitution, 381, 502, 541. Of states to correspond with the President, 131, 380. Of states, their authority in regard to vacancies in Congress, 129, 377, 395, 559. Of states, to be appointed by the national government, 205, 468. Of states to appoint to national offices, 475, 479. Of states to apply to the President to suppress insurrection, 497, 535, 551, 564.

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL. See Council.

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS. See Departments.

EXERCISE of jurisdiction in arsenals, dock-yards, and fortifications, by Congress, 130, 511, 561.

EXPENDITURES, to be made public, 384, 545, To be superintended by a department, 446.

EXPENSES, how apportioned under the Confederation, 63. Proposal to fund them into one mass, 59. Necessary to be paid by taxes, 462. Of the Federal Convention provided for, 510, 512.

EXPORTS, under flags authorized by Congress, 43, 47. Tax on, 130, 302, 357, 379, 391, 432, 454, 486, 535, 538, 545, 561. Compromise between the Northern and Southern States relative to, 460, 471.

EX POST FACTO LAWS, 462, 485, 488, 545, 546, 581.

EXPULSION from Congress, 378, 406, 560.

F.

FAITH, to be given by the states to the judicial proceedings of each other, 132, 381, 488, 504, 563.

FEDERAL UNION, distinguished from an incorporating one, 111. Convention proposed, 96, 116, 117. Convention, its character, 122.

FEDERALIST, Mr. Madison mentions its commencement, 569.

FEDERALISTS, their course in New York, 574.

FEDERAL SYSTEM, such a union not sufficient 132, 206, 207, 219. Compared with a national one, 133, 191, 193, 197, 199, 206, 214, 248, 251, 255. Will not prevent violations of treaties or of law of nations, 207. Not acceded to by the Convention, 212.

FELONY, at sea, within jurisdiction of judiciary, 128, 187, 192, 380. Members of Congress may be arrested for, 130, 560. At sea, to be legislated on by Congress, 130, 378, 436, 543, 561. Fugitives charged with, 381, 487, 563.

FEW, WILLIAM, delegate to the Federal Convention from Georgia, 106. Attends the Federal Convention, 123. Signs the Constitution, 565.

FINANCE, department of, examined by Congress, 62, 80, 91. Increased difficulties, 21, 22, 29, 50, 119. Superintendent declares his wish to resign, 29, 62. Congress discusses plan for permanent revenue, 32, 39, 49, 51, 55, 59, 62, 64. Superintendent proposes general system of revenue, 64. State of, with France, 76. Reorganization of, 99. Department of, under the Constitution, 442, 446, 462.

FINES, to be adjudged by state courts, 192. Relative to the militia, 464, 465.

FISHERIES, Marbois’s intercepted letter about them, 16, 18. Licenses to whalers, 73. Draw-back on salt fish, 84. Remarks on, 392, 489, 526.

FITZSIMONS, THOMAS, not a native of the United States, 412. Proposes plan for redeeming paper money, 8. Opposes disclosure of negotiations relative to confiscations and British debts, 26. Urges general confidence, in discussing the revenue system, 37. Remarks on refusal of impost and contribution by Virginia, 43. Remarks on export of tobacco under authority of Congress, 47. Opposes discrimination among public creditors, 53, 54. Views in regard to impost, 55, 72. Recommends circumspection in regard to commercial treaties, 85. Remarks on cession of public lands, 91. A member of the committee on the answer to the objections of Rhode Island to the impost, (Appendix,) 582. Attends the Federal Convention, 123. In favor of a freehold qualification of electors of representatives, 385. Thinks Congress should be united with the President to make treaties, 523. Objects to requiring the assent of the Congress of the Confederation to the Constitution, 532. Objects to an absolute prohibition to tax exports, 456. Views as to regulating trade between the states, 502. Thinks that full accounts of the expenditures cannot be published, 546. Signs the Constitution, 565.

FLAGS, right of Congress to grant them, 43, 47.

FLEET, may be raised by Congress, 130, 379, 443, 561.

FLORIDA, secret article in treaty with British about, 65, 67, 68, 71, 73, 74.

FORCE, against the states, 128, 139, 140, 171, 192, 200, 217, 218, 343.

FOREIGN, (see Debt,) succors very tardy, 11. Affairs, department of, 9, 82, 89, 99, 442, 446, 462. Invasion to be guarded against, 126, 127, 333, 379, 381, 497, 561. Debt under the Confederation, 126. Commerce to be regulated by Congress, 130, 191, 378, 434, 453, 489, 552, 560. Influence to be guarded against, 209. Alliance by the small states threatened, 268. Coin to be regulates by Congress, 434, 560.

FOREIGNERS, suits of, under jurisdiction of judiciary, 128, 380. Their partisans in republics 203. Views as to their residence before admission to seats in Congress, 389, 398, 411. Presents from, not to be accepted, 467, 561.

FORFEITURES, to be adjudged by state courts, 192. Not to extend beyond the life of persons attainted, 379, 451, 563.

FORGERY, 130, 378, 436, 480.

FORTIFICATIONS, may be erected by Congress, 130, 440, 561. Jurisdiction in, to be exercised by Congress, 130, 511, 561.

FOX, 361.

FRANCE, extent of her control over commissioners to adjust peace, 18. Congress applies to her for further loans, 11. Distrust of, by Mr. Jay, 16, 65. Congress proposes to draw more bills on her, in advance, 21, 22, 26, 38. Her loans, in some instances, directly appropriated to use of the army, 29. Conduct during negotiations for peace, 65, 68, 73, 74, 75, 76. Asks establishment of revenue, to provide for debts, 76. Loans six millions more, 76, 88. Amount of debt to, in 1783, 82. Complains of violation of the treaty, 119.

FRANKING, ordinance relative to, under Confederation, 12.

FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN, assents to exchange of Cornwallis for Col. H. Laurens, with assent of Congress, 6. Negotiations with British, 16. His reports, as to confiscations by states and British debts, 26. His conduct towards France, during negotiations for treaty, discussed, 65, 68, 73, 74, 76. His applications to France for loans, 76. Sends preliminaries of peace, 84. Absent at meeting of Federal Convention, 123. Attends the Convention, 124. Has his remarks read to the Convention, 122, 144, 254, 554. Proposes daily prayers in the Convention, 254. Urges spirit of conciliation, 179. Remarks as to the number of the executive, 140. Objects to a salary for the President, 145. Is strongly in favor of impeaching the President, 340, 344. Remarks on the executive term, 389. Opposes un absolute negative of the President on the legislature, 151. His remarks on the conduct of the colonial governors of Pennsylvania, 152. His remarks on the negative of the British king, 152. Fears the increase of executive power, 154. Objects to power of appointment in the President, 154. Proposes that the President may suspend laws for a limited time, 154. Approves of an executive council, 525. Prefers a legislature of one House, 135. Endeavors to allay the excitement about the representation of the states, 253. Remarks on the plan of compromise between the large and small states, 266, 274, 282, 284, 396. Proposes that votes on money hills shall be in proportion to contribution, 266. All matters relating to money should be made public, 284. Objects to the limitation on the power of Congress to increase the compensation of the judges, 330. Opposes a property qualification for representatives, 387, 403. Opposes the term of citizenship, for members of Congress, being extended too far, 399, 400. Recommends strict provisions, as to the evidence, in cases of treason. Advocates proportional representation in Congress, 179. In favor of fixing the compensation of the representatives, 185. Against allowing a compensation to senators, 246. Remarks on the appointment of the judges, 156. Thinks the final ratification of the Constitution should be referred to a second Convention, 535. Proposes to confer on Congress a power to cut canals, 543. Remarks on the Constitution as finally reported, 554, 557. Signs the Constitution, 565. Closing observations on the adjournment of the Convention, 565.

FRANKLIN, TEMPLE, proposed as secretary of the Convention, 124.

FRANKLIN, state of that name, 356, 493.

FRAZER, PERSIFOR, seizes goods under passport, 28.

FREEDOM, of speech in Congress, 130, 378, 404, 445, 510, 560. From arrest, 130, 378, 404, 445, 510, 560.

FREEHOLD qualification for electors of representatives proposed, 385.

FREEMEN, proportion of, to slaves, in fixing contributions of states, 46, 48, 79, 81, 82. Representation in proportion, 134, 190, 288, 290, 295, 316, 375, 379, 391, 392.

FUGITIVE criminals to be delivered up in the several states, 132, 361, 487, 563. Slaves to be delivered up, 487, 492, 550, 563.

FUNDS. See Revenue.

FUNDING, proposal to fund the debt due to the army, 23. Proposal to fund the expenses of states, 59, 78.

FURLOUGHS granted to the army, 87, 89, 90.

G.

GALLOWAY, Mr., 176.

GALVEZ, DON, picture of, presented, 88.

GARDNER, JOSEPH, seizes goods under passport, 28.

GARDOQUI, Mr., interviews and negotiations with, relative to the views of Spain, 97, 100, 101, 102.

GENERAL POWERS of Congress, 131, 190, 205, 375, 378, 432, 439, 445, 447, 462, 560.

GENERAL WELFARE, to be provided for by the Constitution, 127, 132, 506, 544, 560.

GEORGE III. Speech, December 5, 1782, 50.

GEORGIA neglects to grant the impost, 40. Interested in a general revenue, 60. Number of inhabitants, and proportion of contribution in 1783, 82. Proceedings in regard to Federal Convention, 106. Sends delegates to the Federal Convention, 123, 135, 140. Proportion of representation before a census in the House of Representatives, 129, 288, 290, 316, 375, 377, 559. Proportion of representation before a census in the Senate, 129. Proportion of electors of President, 338, 339, 562.

GERMAN DIET, 200, 208, 236, 252, 287.

GERVAIS, JOHN L., represents South Carolina in Congress, 1. Advocates publication of negotiations relative to confiscations and British debts, 26. His views on valuation of lands, 48. Objects to apportionment of Georgia, 82.

GERRY, ELBRIDGE, delegate to Federal Convention from Massachusetts, 106. Attends the Federal Convention, 126. Objects to au excess of democracy, 136, 159, 160. Urges an harmonious course in the Convention, 259, 273, 278, 283, 312. His plan for a compromise between the large and small states, 274, 311. Opposes the notion of dividing and equalizing the states, 280. Opposes the election of the President by the legislature, 144, 337, 359, 362. Prefers a single executive, 151. Opposes the union of judiciary with the President in negativing the laws 151, 165, 345, 348. Proposes a negative by the President, but the legislature to repass the law, 151. Opposes a power in the President to suspend laws for a limited time, 155. Suggests fifteen years for the executive term, 360. Contends that the President shall not be reëligible if chosen by the national legislature, 358, 359. Contends that the President shall not be reëligible within a certain term if chosen by the national legislature, 366. Views as to an election of the President, 144, 174, 337, 338, 359, 363, 367, 512, 514, 515, 521, 522, Views as to an executive council, 141, 442. Prefers a vote of two thirds, rather than three fourths, to reënact laws returned by the President, 537. Objects to the power of the President to adjourn Congress, 410. Surprised at the suggestion of empowering the President to declare war, 439. In favor of a provision for impeaching the President, 341. Opposes the eligibility of members of Congress to office, 231, 233, 421, 505. Desires that persons having unsettled accounts should be disqualified as members of Congress, 371. Desires that pensioners should be disqualified as members of Congress, 373. Objects to foreigners being members of Congress, 411. Thinks that direct taxation should be regulated by representation, before as well as after a census, 306, 307, 451, 452. Thinks the new states should be restricted as to their representation, 310. Thinks the vote in the Senate should be per capita, 410. Proposes to authorize Congress to establish post-roads, 434. Thinks Congress should be prohibited from passing laws to impair contracts, 546. Proposes certain limitations as to a quorum in Congress, 406. Desires an enumeration of the powers of Congress, 286. Desires the number of the House of Representatives to be large, 292. Objects to an equality, in the proportion of representation, between freemen and slaves, 296. Wishes a special provision for jury trial, 538, 550. Wishes a bill of rights inserted in the Constitution, 538. Wishes the provision against ex post facto laws to embrace civil cases, 545. Proposes a prohibition on Congress in regard to attainders and ex post facto laws, 462. In favor of an annual publication of the public accounts, 546. Opposes the election of the representatives by the people, 137, 160. Thinks appointments should be strictly confined to offices previously created by the Constitution, or by law, 528, 529. Views as to the mode of rectifying the Constitution, 158, 353, 532, 533. Views as to treaties, 439, 524, 526, 527. Thinks Congress should provide for the public securities and engagements of the Confederation, 440, 441, 451, 464, 478. Wishes a proper provision, in regard to standing armies, 442, 511. Opposes the power of Congress over the militia, 444, 464, 465, 466. Thinks sumptuary laws unnecessary, 447. Proposes a power relative to letters of marque and stages on post-roads, 440, 441. His views of the provision in regard to slaves, 459. Dissatisfied with the general character of the Constitution, 466, 501. Proposes the removal of the judges, on application of Congress, 481. Objects to the exclusive authority of the general government over certain places, 511. Views as to amendments of the Constitution, 157, 530. In favor of the Senate being chosen by the state legislatures, 108. Opposes an election of the Senate by the people, from large districts, 169. Opposes a negative of Congress on state laws, 171. Opposes the introduction of slaves into the ratio of representation, 181. Views in regard to the oath to support the Constitution, 183, 352. Wishes the representatives elected annually, 184. Urges origination of money bills by the House of Representatives, 188, 416. Wishes the Journal of the Senate published, except as to parts requiring secrecy, 407, 408. Disapproves of the aristocratic character of the Senate, 422. Wishes duties on exports prohibited, 433, 455. Objects to the seat of government being at any state capital, 374. Is in favor of adequate salaries, 136. Objects to the interference of the general government in state insurrections, 438. In favor of a senatorial term of four or five years, 245. Advocates ineligibility of senators to national offices, for one year after their term, 247, 0422. Prefers the appointment of the judges by the Senate, 350. Fears the influence of the “Society of Cincinnati,” 367. Reasons for declining to sign the Constitution, 553, 557. Coarse in the Convention of Massachusetts for ratifying the Constitution, 572. Criticism on his objections to Federal Constitution, 572.

GIBRALTAR, 27.

GILMAN, JOHN T., represents New Hampshire in Congress, 1. Proposes valuation of lands be made by commissioners appointed by states, 48. Proposes that half pay shall be paid by separate states, 57. Remarks on conduct of American commissioners at Paris, 74.

GILLMAN, NICHOLAS, attends the Federal Convention, 351.

GOLD, a legal tender, 131, 381, 561.

GORHAM NATHANIEL, advocates rule of appointment of taxation according to Articles of Confederation, 25. Resists resignation of Mr. R. Morris, 29. Remarks on repeal of impost by Virginia, 33, 43. Views as to modes of taxation, 40. Advocates limitation of impost, 49. Proposes military force to retake goods seized while under passport, 50. Opposes discrimination among public creditors, 51. Opposes discrimination between original and subsequent holders of certificates, 54, 57. Considers impost the only practicable tax, 55. Remarks on conduct of American commissioners at Paris, 73. Advocates including expenses incurred by states, in general provision for public debt, 78. Advocates apportionment by numbers, 78. Explains character of proposed Convention of Eastern States, 81. Contends for drawback on salt fish, 84. Proposes disbanding the army, 89. Remarks on cession of public lands, 91. Remarks on the department of finance, 91. Views as to Spain and the Mississippi, 103. Delegate to the Federal Convention from Massachusetts, 106. Attends the Federal Convention, 124. Wishes representatives to be paid out of the national treasury, 226. Views as to the ineligibility of members of Congress to office, 229, 505. Desires a compromise as to the proportion of representation between the large and small states, 238. Suggests four years for the senatorial term, 241. Points out the danger to all the states if a Constitution is not formed, 255. Thinks the states should be divided and equalized, 280. Thinks representation should be changed by a periodical census, 288. Urges that the rule of representation be fixed in the Constitution, and the proportion of three fifths for the slaves adhered to, 296, 207, 300. Suggests the appointment of the judges by the President with the advice of the Senate, 328. Approves of the establishment of inferior national courts in the states, 331. Thinks the states should be protected against domestic violence, 333. Objects to the judges forming a part of a council of revision, 344, 348. Approves of oath to support the Constitution, 352. Views as to the ratification of the Constitution, 353, 354. Thinks there should be two senators from each state, 356. Objects to a constitutional provision as to the settled accounts and property qualifications of members of Congress, 370, 372. Contends that elections by the legislature should be by joint ballot, 382. Wishes the time of the meetings of Congress fixed, 383. Objects to a freehold qualification for electors of representatives, 388. Doubts the duration of the government, 392. Remarks on the right of the Senate to alter money bills, 394, 428. Thinks that Congress should have the right to alter the state regulations relative to the election of members of Congress, 401. Thinks it will be inconvenient to require a majority for a quorum, 405. Thinks the compensation of senators should be greater than of representatives, 427. Opposes the power of Congress to emit bills of credit, 434, 435. Does not think a rule for adjusting the state debts necessary in the Constitution, 452. His views as to the sentiments of the Eastern States relative to the Union, 461. Objects to the provision requiring treaties to be ratified by law, 469, 479. Doubts whether controversies between the states should be left to the judiciary, 471. His views on the importation of slaves, 477, 478. Views as to the regulations of trade between the states, 479, 503. Prefers the emission of bills of credit by the states being submitted to Congress, 484. Objects to requiring two thirds to pass a navigation law, 492. Thinks the Constitution should be ratified by state conventions, 500. Views on the mode of electing a Vice-President, 507. Views on the mode of making treaties, 524, 527. Doubts the propriety of allowing states to lay inspection duties, 539. Prefers the appointment of the treasurer by Congress, 543, Moves to lessen the ratio of representation from forty to thirty thousand, 555. Signs the Constitution, 564.

GOVERNMENT, (see System of Government,) to consist of legislative, executive, and judicial powers, 129, 132, 189, 242, 375, 377, 382. Seat of, 130, 374, 409, 561. To be organized when ratified by a certain number of states, 132, 381, 584. Distribution of powers under it, 133, 189, 375, 377. Republican form to be guarantied, 130, 157, 190, 216, 332, 381, 497, 564. Ought to preserve a certain agency of the states, 168, 170, 176, 193, 194, 219, 238, 240, 248, 255. The states should lint liars too great an agency, 168, 199, 200, 207, 221. Of the territories to be provided for, 439, 564.

GOVERNOR of states to be appointed by the general government, 205, 468.

GRAYSON, COLONEL, 97, 99. Advocates the admission of a British consul, 101. Speaks of a plan for a Federal Convention, 118.

GREECE, 162, 236, 252, 287.

GREENE, GENERAL, Congress express complimentary opinion of, 25, 26.

GRIFFIN, CYRUS, made President of Congress, 570.

GUARANTY, of internal tranquillity of the states needed during the Confederation, 120. Of republican government to the states, 128, 157, 182, 190, 216, 332, 381, 497, 560. Of their territory to the states, 128, 157, 182, 190. In regard to the emancipation of slaves, 357. In regard to duties on exports, 357, 379, 561. In regard to the migration or importation of slaves, 379, 561.

GUARDOQUI, Mr., interviews and negotiations with, relative to the views of Spain, 100, 101, 102.

H.

HABEAS CORPUS, suspension of, 131, 445, 484, 561.

HALF PAY, asked by the army, 24. Report in favor of, 29, 30, 31. Discussed, 44, 57, 61, 64, 72, 73. Amount of, 83.

HAMILTON, ALEXANDER, advocates exchange of Cornwallis for Col. H. Laurens, 7. Advocates a credit to the states redeeming paper money beyond their quotas, 8. Advocates coercive measures towards Vermont. 12,44. Urges an adjustment of a plan of revenue. 13. Proposes a revision of the requisitions on the states, 16. Objects to valuation of lands being made by states, 21. Appointed to confer with superindent of finance on arrears of army, 24. Proposes to classify lands as a basis of contributions one of the states, 24, 25. Urges the propriety of stating that loans by France were appropriated to the army, 29. Reports plan for settling arrears due to the army, 29. Urges liberal rate in allowance of half pay to the army, 31. Discusses plan for permanent revenue, 33, 39, 42, 52, 57, 72. Urges collection of revenue by officers of Congress 34, 35, 65. Suggests tax by Congress on houses and windows, 38. Objects to valuation of lands as basis of revenue 44. Censures the conduct of Vermont, 44. Opposes use of military force to take goods seized while under passport, 50, Advocates debates of Congress being public, 52. Opposes limitation on duration of impost, 52, 54, 65. Opposes appropriation of impost to pay the army first, 53. Wishes other taxes than impost, 55. Mentions determination of army to have their pay provided for, 55. His remarks on Gen. Washington, 55. Proposes promotion of Maj. Burner, 58. Proposes abatement of proportion of certain states, 58, 62. Vindicates Robert Morris, 62. Remarks on the conduct of the American commissioners at Paris, 69, 75. Disapproves proposed convention of Eastern States, 81, 117. Intimates a wish for a general convention to propose plan of Federal Constitution, 80. Views on proportion of freemen and slaves in fixing contributions of the states, 81. On committee to organize peace establishment, 82. Views on ratification of provisional articles, 86. Draws address of Congress to Rhode Island, 88. Urges fulfilment of provisional article about tories, 88. Proposal of stipulation against naval force on the lakes, 89. In favor of disbanding army, 90. Remarks on cession of public lands, 91. Confers with president of Pennsylvania on mutinous conduct of troops, 92. A delegate to the convention at Annapolis, 115. Draughts address of convention at Annapolis, 115. A delegate to the Federal Convention from New York, 106. Attends the Federal Convention, 123. Proposes William Jackson as secretary of the Convention, 124. Appointed on committee to prepare rules for Convention, 124. His views of a general system of government, 198. Objects to a government merely federal, 199. Objects to government being vested in a Congress, 201. To substitute a general government and extinguish that of the states would be a great economy, 202. Doubts the advantage of the vast apparatus of the states, 202, 212, 220, 223. His opinion of the British government, 203, 226, 229, 244. Does not think that the separation from Great Britain threw the colonies into a state of nature, 213. Effects of a union on the large and small states, 214. Does not think favorably of republican government, 244. His plan of a Constitution, 205. Exhibits a plan of a Constitution to Mr. Madison as that which he designed to offer (Appendix, No. 5,) 584. His remarks when submitting his plan shown to him by Mr. Madison 122, 206. Advocates an absolute negative of the executive on the acts of the legislature, 151. The executive should be for life, 203, (Appendix, No. 5,) 587. Disadvantages of a temporary Senate, 203. Proposes the number of free inhabitants as the ride of representation, 134. Advocates same right of suffrage in both branches of Congress, 182. Objects to the election of representatives by the state legislatures, 223. Prefers triennial elections of the representatives, 225. Opposes the payment of the representatives by the states, 227, 228. His views on appointing the representatives to office, 229, 233. Objects to the entire exclusion of foreigners from Congress, 411. Urges a reduction of the ratio of representation in the House 530. Views on the mode of amending the Constitution, 531, 532. Views ca the mode of ratifying the Constitution, 532, 533. Prefers a vote of three fourths to reenact laws returned by the President, 537. Opposes the equal power of the states in the government, 258. Views on the general character of the Constitution, 517. Considers the decision of the Convention as settling the fate of a republican government, 244. Dislikes the plan of the Constitution but will support it if adopted, 517, 556. Wishes the Constitution to be signed by all the delegates, 556. Signs the Constitution, 564. His reasons for objecting to the motion for daily prayers in the Convention, 254.

HANCOCK, JOHN, 568.

HANNUM, JOHN, seizes goods under passport, 28.

HANSON, JOHN, represents Maryland in Congress, 1.

HARBORS, states to lay duties to clear them, 548.

HARMONY, cases affecting national, to be tried by the judiciary, 128, 187, 188, 199, 332. Cases affecting national, to be legislated upon by Congress, 139, 190, 320, 375.

HARTFORD, convention proposed there, 81, 117.

HAZEN, GENERAL, 83.

HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS, to be appointed by the President, 205. To constitute a council, 446, 462. President to call for their opinions, 165, 442, 446, 462, 507, 525, 562.

HEATH, GENERAL, 572.

HEMP, 89,

HEMSLEY, WILLIAM, represents Maryland in Congress, 1.

HENRY, PATRICK, views relative to Spain and the Mississippi, 107. Course in regard to the Federal Convention, 107. Opinions on the Federal Constitution, 568, 571.

HIGGINSON, STEPHEN, remarks on a system of general revenue, 72, 78. Remarks on the conduct of the American ministers at Paris, 73. Advocates including the expenses incurred by the states in a general provision for the public debt, 78. Remarks on the proportion of freemen to slaves in fixing the contributions of states, 72. Remarks on a proposed convention of the Eastern States, 81.

HILL, MR., 11.

HOLLAND. See Dutch.

HOLTEN, SAMUEL, opposes the system of permanent revenge, 57. Declares his conviction of the necessity of a permanent revenue, 61. Remarks on the conduct of the American commissioners at Paris, 74. Remarks on the proportion of freemen to slaves in fixing the contributions of states, 72.

HOSTILITIES, suspension of, proposed by Congress, 80. Refusal of Carleton to suspend, 80.

HOUSE. See Senate, Representatives. Congress robe composed of two, 127, 129, 189, 205, 375, 377, 558.

HOUSE OF DELEGATES of Virginia, 113.

HOUSTON, WILLIAM C., attends the Federal Convention, 123. Moves a reconsideration of the resolution for choosing the President by electors appointed by the state legislatures, 357.

HOUSTOUN, WILLIAM, attends the Federal Convention, 141. Doubts the propriety of a guaranty as to the slate constitutions, 333.

HOWE, LORD, 27.

HOWELL, DAVID represents Rhode Island in Congress, 1. Advocates the report on the differences between New York and Vermont, 4. Reports against the proposal of Pennsylvania to provide for the public Creditors within the state, 5. Proposes a settlement with the troops temporarily raised by the states, 5. Opposes military proceedings against Vermont, 9, 10. His letter relative to the proceedings of Congress published, and the discussions thereon, 13, 15, 16, 22, 80. Pens the objections of Rhode Island to the impost, 15.

HUDDEY, CAPTAIN, retaliation for the murder of, 2.

HUNTINGDON, BENJAMIN, represents Connecticut in Congress, 1.

I.

ILLINOIS, grievances there, 100.

IMMUNITIES, of citizens of each state to be extended to them in the others, 132, 381, 563. Of trade between the slates, 479, 484, 545, 561.IMPAIRING of private contracts by the states, 485, 546, 562.

IMPEACHMENT, power of, to belong to House of Representatives, 129, 377, 559. Trial of by national judiciary, 128, 188, 205, 329, 332, 380. Under jurisdiction of the Supreme Court, 131, 380. Not to be tried by jury, 381, 484. Trial of by the Senate, 506, 528, 529, 534, 561. Of the president, 131, 149, 190, 195, 326, 335, 339, 340, 361, 366, 376, 389, 480, 507, 528. Of the supreme judges, 447, 462. Of the heads of departments, 446. Judgment on it, 381, 529. Extent of the judgment under it, 381, 559. Pardon not to extend to, 480, 562. No pardon in, by the President, 131, 380, 562. Conviction under it, 381, 507, 528, 529, 559. Its inefficacy against the President, 143, 329.

IMPORTATION of slaves, 379, 391, 471, 477, 532, 561.

IMPOST, See Revenue. Virginia repeals her law, granting it, 17, 33. Necessity of granting it by the states, 37. Refused by Rhode Island, 11, 13. Congress urges its necessity, 5, 11. Advantage as a mode of taxation, 40, 49, 55. How collections under it should be credited, 41. Mode of ascertaining and collecting, 49. Proposal to appropriate it to the army first, 51. Proposal for specific duties, 51, 63, 66. Proposals as to its duration, 49, 52, 53, 54, 65. Massachusetts accedes to it reluctantly, 72. Proposal to submit it separately to the states, 73. Not attainable under the Confederation, 127. To be laid and collected by Congress, 130, 191, 378, 432, 506, 560. Not to be laid by the states, without the assent of Congress, 131, 381, 486, 547, 561.

INCORPORATION, power of Congress in regard to, 440, 543.

INCREASE, of the pay of the President not to be made during his term, 128, 131, 380, 562. Of pay of the judges not to be made during their term, 128, 131, 156, 190, 380, 481, 563.

INDEPENDENCE. See Declaration. Commission to Oswald, recognizing it, 16. Effect of it on the separate sovereignty of the states, 213, 286. Of the executive, 141, 142, 143, 148, 153, 165, 326, 334, 342, 361, 473, 508, 509, 516. Of the departments as records each other, 138, 153, 164, 165, 327, 342, 344, 359, 429, 473, 516, 519, 522. Of the Senate, 170. Of the judiciary, 344, 429.

INDIANS, interference with, by Georgia, 119. States will treat with them, 207. Affairs with, to be regulated by Congress, 439, 462, 506, 560. Not to be included in apportioning representation, 181, 190, 192, 379, 559.

INDICTMENT, persons impeached liable to, 381, 559.

INDIES, WEST, trade with, 19.

INELIGIBILITY, of representatives to office, 127, 185, 189, 229, 375, 378, 420, 503, 505, 560. Of senators to office, 127, 187, 190, 247, 271, 375, 378, 420, 503, 505, 560. Of executive a second time, 128, 131, 140, 142, 149, 190, 324, 325, 327, 334, 358, 363, 365, 367, 369, 376, 380, 472, 473, 509, 512, 517. Of electors of President, 343, 515.

Of executive officers to other places, 445.

INFERIOR COURTS, term, salary, and qualifications of their judges, 128, 380, 563. Their jurisdiction in the first instance, 128, 131, 188, 190, 376, 380, 481, 563. May be constituted by Congress, 128, 130, 131, 155, 159, 190, 205, 331,376, 378, 380, 436. 561. Objected to, 155, 158.

INFORMATION of the President to Congress, 131, 380.

INGERSOLL, JARED, attends the Federal Convention, 124. Remarks on the mode of signing the Constitution, 558. Signs the Constitution, 565.

INHABITANTS, discussed as a rule of contribution under the Confederation, 24, 48, 79, 81, 82. To be reported by states to Congress, to form basis of taxation 46, 64, 79. Number of, should form rule of representation in the legislature, 127, 129, 130, 134, 149, 178, 190, 278, 290, 216, 376, 379. To be ascertained by Congress from time to time. 130, 279, 288, 294, 301, 302, 306, 316, 375, 377, 379, 559. Number of free and three fifths of slaves to form rat o of representation, 181, 288, 316, 375, 377, 379, 559. Number required for a representative, 274, 278, 288 377, 555, 559. Slaves to be included in the apportionment of representation, 288, 290, 295, 316, 375, 377, 379, 559. President to be, of the United States, 462, 507, 521, 562. Member of Congress to be, of his state, 210, 377, 389, 401, 559.

INSTALMENTS, laws of states relative to, during the Confederation, 120.

INSTITUTIONS, power of Congress in regard to scientific, 440.

INSURRECTION, in Massachusetts, 94, 99, 119, 127, National government should guaranty states against, 108, 120. Congress may subdue, 130, 139, 332, 378, 379, 437, 467, 497, 535, 561. To be guarded against by the Constitution, 209, 333, 381, 564.

INTERCEPTED LETTER of Marbois, 16.

INTEREST on the public debt to be provided for, 39, 83, 462. Amount of, in 1783, 39.

INTERFERENCE of Congress with the police of the states, 326, 462.

INVASION, to be guarded against, 126, 127, 333, 379, 381, 467, 497, 561, 564. Habeas corpus may be suspended during, 131, 484, 561. States may defend themselves against, 131.

IRON, 89.

IZARD, RALPH, represents South Carolina in Congress, 1. Advocates a reduction of salaries of the ministers, 5. Against disbanding army, 90. Remarks on the conduct of the executive of Pennsylvania, relative to the mutinous conduct of the troops, 92, 93.

J.

JACKSON, WILLIAM, elected secretary of the Convention, 124.

JAY, JOHN, spoken of as secretary of foreign affairs, 9. Sends an intercepted letter of Marbois, 16, 17. Distrusts the French ministers, 16, 17, 18, 65. His conduct towards France during the negotiations discussed, 65, 68, 69, 70, 73, 74. Amount borrowed by, in Spain 82. Reports on the operation of treaties on the states of the Confederation, 98. Negotiations with Gardoqui as secretary of foreign affairs, 102, 103. Approves of the Federal Constitution, 570. Forged letter in regard to, 570.

JEALOUSY of the states towards each other, 127.

JEFFERSON, THOMAS; Mr. Madison writes to him on public affairs, 107, 558. Appointed minister to negotiate peace, 4. Spoken of as secretary of foreign affairs, 9, 91. His departure suspended by Congress, 50. Proposal to scud him to Madrid, relative to the Mississippi, 102, 103. Receives from Mr. Madison his plan of a national government, 120. His opinions on the Federal Constitution, 573.

JENIFER, DANIEL OF ST. THOMAS, attends the Federal Convention, 144. Proposes triennial elections of representatives, 183. In flavor of ineligibility of representatives to office, 232. Desires a provision for regulating trade between the states, 503. Signs the Constitution, 565.

JOHNSON, DR. WILLIAM S., attends the Federal Convention, 144. Does not wish the sovereignty of the states to be destroyed by the Constitution, 220, 240. Advocates a representation of the states in one branch, and the people in the other, 255. Thinks population the true rule of wealth and of representation, and that blacks as well as whites should be considered in it, 303. Thinks there can be no treason against an individual state, 448, 449. Thinks a prohibition as to attainders and ex post facto laws unnecessary, 463. Objects to the provision for the ratification of treaties by law, 470. Thinks controversies between the states should be left to the judiciary, 471. Considers the debts of the Confederation equally binding under the Constitution, 476. Proposes that the judiciary shall embrace eases in equity, 481. Desires to exclude Vermont from the proposed Conditions in regard to the admission of new states 495. Views on the provision for giving effect to legislative and judicial proceedings of the states, 504. Sighs the Constitution, 564.

JONES, PAUL, 10.

JONES, WALTER, appointed a delegate to the Convention at Annapolis, 113.

JOURNAL, to be kept by both Houses of Congress, 130, 378, 407, 409, 560. To be published except on secret occasions, 130, 378, 407, 409, 560. Dissent of senators to be entered on it, 407.

JUDGES, to be appointed by the legislature, 128, 155, 188, 376, 380. Their tenure during good behavior, 128, 131, 192, 205, 330, 376, 380, 481, 563. Their salaries, 128, 131, 156, 192, 330, 376, 380, 482, 563. The increase or diminution of their salary, 128, 156, 192, 330, 376, 379, 482. To be appointed by the Senate, 131, 156, 190, 328, 348, 376, 379, 467, 459. Ought not to be appointed by the people, 137. To be appointed by the President, 155, 192, 350. To be appointed by the President and Senate, 205, 328, 348, 507, 524, 562. Not to hold any oilier office, 192. Property qualification of, 371. To give opinions to the President and Congress, 445. Impeachment of, 447, 462.

JUDGMENT, extent of, in cases of impeachment, 381, 529, 559. Effect of those of one state in another, 488, 504, 563.

JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS, the states to give faith to those of each other, 132, 381, 488, 504, 563.

JUDICIARY, to form one of the supreme powers of the government, 128, 129, 132, 375, 377, 382. To consist of supreme and inferior tribunals, 128, 155, 190, 376, 380, 563. To be constituted by the legislature, 128, 155, 190, 376, 378, 380, 436, 561. To be appointed by the President, 155, 192, 328, 350. To be appointed by the Senate, 131, 156, 190, 328, 348, 376, 469. To be nominated by the Senate, subject to the approval of the President, 350. To be appointed by the President and Senate, 205, 328, 330, 348, 507, 524, 562. Tenure of their offices during good behavior, 128, 131, 199, 192, 330, 369, 376, 380, 481, 563. Their compensation, 128, 131, 156, 190, 192, 330, 376, 380, 482, 563. the increase or diminution of their compensation, 128, 156, 190, 192, 336, 376, 380, 482, 563. The supreme tribunal to hear cases in the dernier resort, 128, 205, 380. Its jurisdiction, 128, 187, 188, 190, 192, 332, 376, 380, 482, 563. To embrace courts of admiralty, 131, 380, 563. Ought to be limited to cases brought by appeal from state courts, 159. To possess only appellate jurisdiction from the stats courts, 192. To embrace courts of equity 131, 481, 553. To extend to controversies between the states, 471, 482, 561. To constitute, with the executive, a council of revision, 123, 151, 155, 164, 344, 428. Objections to its having a right to revise legislative acts, 165, How far it should possess legislative functions, 347. The danger of allowing them to declare the laws void, 429. Inferior tribunals may be constituted by Congress, 130, 131, 159, 190, 331, 376, 378, 380, 561. To be bound by acts of Congress and treaties, 131, 322, 379, 483. Ought not to be chosen immediately by the people, 137. Objections to the national judiciary, 155, 158. Protection of it against encroachment of the other branches, 344. Property qualification of, 371, 403. That of the states to adjudge on offences under the Constitution, 192, 331.

JUNCTION, of two or more states to be provided for, 128, 157, 182, 190, 381, 496.

JURISDICTION, of Judiciary, 128, 187, 188, 192, 205, 331, 376, 380, 446, 462, 481, 483, 484, 535, 563. Of the Supreme Court, 131, 376, 380, 563. That of the national judiciary to be merely appellate from the state courts, 192. Of Congress in arsenals, dock-yards, and fortifications, 130, 511, 561. Of Congress, at the seat of government, 130, 374, 511, 561. Controversies about, between the sates, 131, 379. Over controversies between the states, 131, 379, 471, 482, 561. Over controversies in regard to territory and public lands, 471, 493, 497. Of the state courts to extend to cases under the Constitution, 192.

JURY, cases to be tried by, 381, 484, 550, 563.

JUSTICE, (see Chief Justice,) fugitives from, 381, 487, 563.

K.

KENTUCKY, its admission as a state, 356. Remarks of Gardoqui in relation to, 97, 100.

KING. See Monarchy.

KING, RUFUS, remarks on the insurrection in Massachusetts, 94, 99. Views of the operation of treaties on the states under the Confederation, 99. Views as to salaries, 99. Remarks on the settlement of public accounts, 99. Remarks on the negotiations with Spain, 101, 102, 103. Discusses the vote of the states required to suspend the use of the Mississippi, 103. A delegate to the Federal Convention from Massachusetts, 106. Attends the Federal Convention, 123. Objects to the yeas and nays, 124. Remarks on the nature of state sovereignty, under the Constitution, 212. Wishes the state governments preserved, bet made subordinate, 269. His great anxiety for an harmonious adoption of a Constitution, 266. Views on the compromise between the large and small states, 514. View, as to an election of President, 336, 362, 515. Views as to reëligibility and tenure of the President, 336, 342. Is opposed to the impeachment of the President by the legislature, 341. Objects to an executive council, 523. Contends for a proportionate representation in the Senate, 138, 266, 312. Objects to contribution being the sole rule of representation, 134, 178. Opposes, the representation being fixed by the Constitution, 280. Admits that slaves should be considered in apportioning representation as well as taxation, 290. Thinks the question, as to representation, is more between the Northern and Southern than the small and large states, 290. Does not like numbers alone to be the rule of representation, especially if the blacks are included, 300, 304. Opposes the rate of representation being absolutely fixed by the Constitution, 304. Thinks exports should be taxed, if slaves are represented, 392. Opposes the exclusive right of the House in regard to money bills, 188. Objects to an election of representatives by the state legislatures, 224. Objects to the payment of the representatives by the states, 227. Views as to the ineligibility of members of Congress, 229, 231, 505, 506. Objects to a landed qualification for members of Congress, 371. Does not think annual meetings of Congress will be necessary, 383. Thinks Congress should have the right to alter the state regulations, relative to members of Congress, 402. Prefers allowing a quorum in Congress to be fixed by law, 405, 408. Thinks the states should not tax exports without the assent of Congress, 486. Thinks the states should not be prevented from encouraging their manufacturers, 487. Objects to union of judiciary with the executive in revising the laws, 151, 165. Favors the establishment of inferior national tribunals, 115. Views in regard to punishment of treason, 449, 450, 549. Proposes a prohibition on the states, in regard to laws affecting contracts, 485. Views as to treaties, 524, 526. Remarks on the provision in regard to the militia, 464. Desires a permanent seat of government, 409. Remarks on the assumption of the Stilts debts, 441. Objects to an exemption of slaves from duty, 460, 478. His remarks en slavery, 391. Proposes the assent of life states to purchases of places therein 511. Thinks a power in Congress to create corporations unnecessary, 544. Views on the mode of ratification of the Constitution, 158, 355, 499, 500. Prefers to submit the Constitution to the Congress of the Confederation, but not to require their assent to it, 533, 540. Signs the Constitution, 564. Course in the Convention of Massachusetts, sailed to ratify the Constitution, 572.

KNOWLTON, LUKE, charged with intrigues with British about Vermont, 7, 8. His arrest directed by Congress, 8, 31.

L.

LABOR, fugitives from, to be delivered up, 487, 492, 550, 563.

LAFAYETTE, promotes exchange of Cornwallis for Col. H. Laurens, 6. Sends news of peace, 74.

LAND, tax upon, discussed, 34. 37, 40, 67. Mode of valuation discussed in Congress, 21, 24, 43, 45, 77, 78. Qualification in, proposed for members of Congress, 370. Qualifications in, proposed for electors of representatives, 385.

LANDS, PUBLIC, the influence of the question of ceding the public lands on the politics of the Confederation. 111. Proposal to derive a revenue from them, 39, 59, 63. Proposal to adopt a system in regard to, 83. Proposal to give army certificates for, 90. Discussion on the cession of them renewed, 87, 91, 92. Power of Congress in regard to, under the Constitution, 439, 441, 493, 496.

LANGDON, JOHN, attends the Federal Convention, 351. Thinks the ballot in Congress for the President should be joint, 472. Thinks members of Congress should be paid out of the national treasury, 425. Objects to a constitutional provision, requiring a property qualification for members of Congress, 373. Objects to the scat of government being at any state capital, 374. Opposes the power in Congress to emit bills of credit, 435. Approves of the power vested in Congress to subdue rebellions 438. Does not distrust Congress on the subject of standing armies, 443. Does not distrust Congress on the subject of the militia, 444, 465. Objects to taxation being proportioned to representation before a census, 451, 453. Wishes the states prohibited from taxing exports, 454. Thinks Congress should have the right to tax slaves, 460, 478. Approves of a negative in Congress on state laws, 469. Views as to regulating commerce between the states, 503, 548. Views as to imposing conditions when admitting new states, 492, 493. Signs the Constitution, 564.

LANSING, JOHN, attends the Federal Convention, 106, 144. Opposes going into a committee of the whole, 191. Objects to the propositions of Mr. Randolph, as amended and adopted, 193. Thinks the Convention limited to the amendment of the Confederation, 193, 214. Proposes that the power of legislation he vested in the Congress, 214. Opposes the negative of Congress on the state laws, 215. Proposes an equal vote of the states in the House of Representatives, 249. Wishes some plan for compromise on the question of representation, 273.

LAWS. See Acts.

LAW OF NATIONS, not sufficiently protected tinder the Confederation, 127. Congress to legislate on offences against, 130, 378, 561.

LAURENS, HENRY, notifies his intention to return, 1.

LEE, ARTHUR, opposition to Robert Morris, 62, 80. States his objections to a general system of taxation, 34, 38, 56. Suggests that a general revenue system should be framed by the states, 38. Views on a system of permanent revenue, 41, 42. Communicates a letter, relative to an overture from Canada, 45. Remarks on the export of tobacco by authority of Congress, 48. His views on a mode of valuation of lands, 48. Urges a limitation of the impost 49. Proposes to take, by military force, goods seized while under passport, 50. Proposes to appropriate the impost to pay the army first, 52, 53. Remarks on the original and subsequent holders of loan certificates, 54. Proposes measures against the refugees, 58. Opposes an abatement in the proportion of certain states, 58. Remarks on the conduct of the commissioners at Paris, 69, 73, 74, 75. Remarks on the proportion of freemen to slaves in fixing the contributions of the states, 79. Calls for a report from the superintendent of finance, 80. Advocates a suspension of hostilities, 80. Proposes an indemnity to the officers of the array, 88. Proposes a statue of Gen. Washington, 88.

LEE, RICHARD II., views in regard to the Federal Constitution, 118, 566, 568, 570.

LEE, WILLIAM, sends proposal of Austria for commercial treaty, 52.

LEGISLATURE. See Congress of the Constitution; States.

LETTERS, written by Mr. Madison prior to the Convention of 1787, 106 to 108. Written after the adjournment of the Federal Convention, 566 to 576.

LEVYING WAR, evidence of, in cases of treason, 130, 379, 448, 563.

LIGHTHOUSES, states to levy duties to erect them, 548.

LIMITATION, relative to the continuance of the revenue laws, 462. On the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus, 484, 561.

LINCOLN, GEN., course in Convention of Massachusetts to ratify Federal Constitution, 572.

LIPPENCOT, Congress discuss the matter of, 2. His punishment demanded by Congress, 3.

LIVINGSTON, ROBERT R., his wish to resign as secretary of foreign affairs, 9, 90. Agrees to continue, 9, 16. Disapproves the secret article about Florida, 67. Report on Garleton’s refusal to suspend hostilities, 80. Prepares a proclamation on the cessation of hostilities, 81. Inadequacy of his salary, 9, 89, 90.

LIVINGSTON, WILLIAM, attends the Federal Convention, 155. Reports provisions relative to the public debt and militia, 451. Reports provisions relative to slaves, navigation, and capitation taxes, 470. Thinks the public creditors should be put in the salsa state under the Constitution as under the Confederation, 476.

LOANS, additional one from France, 76, 88. From the Dutch, 11. Congress apply for more from France, 11. Proposal to apply for further abroad, 22, 23, 26. Propriety of disclosing their amount, 42. State of those with France, 76, 82. Amount of, in 1783, 82. To be made by Congress under the Constitution, 130, 378.

LORDS, HOUSE OF, impossible in America, 148, 235, 237. Considered a noble institution, 203. Senate should be like it, 166. Not a model for the Senate, 188, 235. Its negative on the Commons, 263, 416.

LOWELL, Mr., appointed judge of Court of Appeals, 11.

LUZERNE, vote of thanks to, 20. Remarks on conduct of American commissioners at Paris towards France, 65. 66, 76.

LYCIAN LEAGUE, 264.

M.

M’CLURG, JAMES, attends the Federal Convention, 123. Proposes the executive term to be during good behavior, 325. Desires some specific provision relative to the exercise of executive powers by the President, 344.

M’DOUGAL, GEN., a deputy from the army to Congress, 21, 23.

M’HENRY, JAMES, views on terms of cession of public lands by Virginia, 92. Attends the Federal Convention, 124. Remarks on the subterfuges adopted to avoid the provision in regard to money bills, 420. Proposes to raise taxes by requisitions, 453. Desires a prohibition in regard to attainders and ex post facto laws, 462. Desires a regulation in regard to trade between the states, 479, 503. Views as to the mode of ratifying the Constitution, 500. Desires a provision for the President to convene the Senate separately, 530. Signs the Constitution, 565.

M’KEAN, THOMAS, represents Delaware in Congress, 1. Opposes a separate provision by Pennsylvania for the public creditors there, 5. Proposes a conditional exchange of Cornwallis for Col. H. Laurens, 7. Advocates coercion towards Vermont, 10, 12.

MADISON JAMES his remarks on the admission of Vermont and the cession of public lands, 85, 92. Votes for Mr. Bland as president of Congress, 1. Opposes a partial exchange of prisoners, 1. Urges more formality and certainty in the directions of Congress to the executive departments, 4. Opposes a reduction of the salaries of ministers plenipotentiary, 5. Advocates au exchange of Cornwallis for Col. H. Laurens, 6. Proposes a plan for adjusting the allowances to the states that redeem paper money beyond their quotas, 8. Resolution of, relative to Paul Jones, 10. His views on the right of Congress to use coercive measures towards Vermont, 12. His views on fixing a rate of depreciation of paper money, 14. His views on reciprocity in the treaty between British and Americans in each country, 19. Endeavors to obtain stipulations for a reciprocal trade with Britain and the West Indies, 19. Opposes an alteration by Congress in regard to the Convention about consuls with France, 20. Views on a valuation of lands as the basis of taxation, 21, 25, 43, 46, 47, 51. Opposes distrust towards France, 22, 23. Urges an application to France for further loans, 23. Suggests funding the debt to army, 23. Appointed to confer with the superintendent of finance on a plan for settling the arrears of the army, 24. Intimates that Congress should not solicit Mr. Morris to continue in office, 29. Urges the establishment of general revenue system, 34, 35, 39. Suggests the establishment by Congress of an impost Oil trade, and qualified poll arid land tax, 38. Urges the question of a valuation of land being considered with that of general revenue, 44. Advocates a commutation of half pay, 45. Considers an impost the only practicable tax, 55, 56. Explains the powers of Congress under the Confederation, 55. His plan for abating the proportions of certain states funding their expenses and establishing a system of public lands, 59, 60. 77, 78. Remarks on the conduct of the American commissioners at Paris, 71, 74. Remarks on the proportion of freemen to slaves in fixing the contributions of states, 79. Desires information in regard to the department of finance, 80, 91, Disapproves of a proposed convention of the Eastern States, 81. On the committee to organize a peace establishment, 82. Endeavors to reduce the apportionment of Georgia, 82. Opposes a premature system in regard to the public lands, 83. Recommends circumspection in regard to commercial treaties, 85. Opposes a hasty ratification of provisional articles, 85. Proposes a commission to adjust the debts of the states, 86. Draws the address to states, 88. Urges a provision for Canadian refugees, 89. Becomes a member of the House of Delegates of Virginia, 112. Appointed a delegate to the convention at Annapolis 113, 114, Draws act of Virginia appointing delegates to the Federal Convention, 117. Remarks on the insurrection in Massachusetts, and on raising troops by Congress, 95. Remarks in Congress on the plan of the Federal Convention, 96. Remarks on the operation of treaties on the states, 99. Communicates to Mr. Randolph his view of anew Federal Constitution, 107, 121. Sentiments on the effect of the American revolution in Europe, 575. Remarks on ancient confederacies, 109. Remarks on the colonies before the revolution, 110. His wish to remedy the evils of the Confederation, 113. Prepares to take reports of debates in the Federal Convention, 121. Attends the Federal Convention, 123. Thinks the powers of the national government should not be too much limited, 161, 251. Wishes to protect the minority from oppression by the majority, 162. His general views of a national as compared with a federal government, 206, 256. His objections to Mr. Patterson’s plan, 206. Effect of a breach of compact by a member of the Confederacy, 206, 356. Remarks on the violations of the Articles of Confederation by the states, 207. His views of the defects of the Confederation, 907. Remarks on the effect of a mere confederacy on the small states, 210. Remarks on the scheme for equalizing the states, 211. Remarks on the danger of encroachments by the states and national government on each other, 221, 250, 257. His general views as to the ends to be sought in forming a Constitution, 242, 250. Fears more from the power of the states than of the general government, 257. Opposes a committee to prepare plan of compromise between the large and small states, relative to representation, 273, 275. His course towards the small states complained of, 278. Objects to distinctions between the new and old states, 299, 492. Urges the importance of preserving the mutual independence of the great departments of the government, 345, 347. Thinks the preponderance of the legislature is chiefly to be guarded against, 345, 347. His views on the general power of the President, 141, 164. Opposes removal of the President by Congress, on application of the states, 148. Opposes an absolute negative in the executive, 152, 164. Wishes judiciary united with the executive to revise the laws, 164, 344, 346, 428, 431, 537. Urges the necessity of making the executive and legislature independent of each other, 326. Views on the impeachment of the President, 341, 528, 529, 542. Views on the election of President, 337, 363, 364. 365, 508, 513, 514, 515, 519, 521. Thinks the ballot in Congress for a President should be joint, 472. Desires a provision to prevent the President from appointing to offices not previously created by law, 474. Suggests the exercise by a council of the executive powers during a vacancy, 480. Objects to an equal suffrage being allowed to all the states, 135, 250, 265. Thinks Senate and judiciary should not be chosen immediately by the people, 137. Opposes a division of the Union into senatorial districts, 138. Thinks judiciary should be appointed by the Senate, 156, 188. Advocates a shall Senate, 167. Advocates a proportional representation in the Senate, 167, 265, 267, 275, 313. Objects to an election of senators by the state legislatures 169. Suggests a negative on state laws being given to the Senate, 173. Advocates seven years as the senatorial term, 186. Does net object to nine years for the senatorial term, 243. Desires to give firmness and stability to the Senate, 187. Objects to the payment of the senators by the states, 246. Advocates ineligibility of senators to national offices for one year after their term, 247. Objects to an equality of suffrage in the Senate, 265, 275. Approves of voting in the Senate per capita, 312. Wishes the provision for supplying vacancies in the Senate made more distinct, 395. Urges some other file of representation than contribution alone, 134. Urges an equitable ratio of representation, but different from that of the Confederation, 134, 270. Urges that slaves should be considered in apportioning representation, 289. Considers the number of inhabitants the best rule of representation, and, in general, the best criterion of property, 299. Thinks the opposing interests of the Convention are those of the northern and southern, rather than the large and small states, 306. Thinks the rule fixing a representative for every forty thousand inhabitants should not be made perpetual, 392. Urges a reduction of the ratio of representation in the House, 530. Urges the election of the representatives by the people, 137. Advocates triennial election of representatives, 183, 225. In favor of fixing the compensation of the representatives, 184, 227, 426. Objects to the payment of the representatives by the states, 227. Desires to limit the ineligibility of representatives to offices established or augmented during their term, 230, 231. Objects to a landed qualification for members of Congress, 371. Objects to fixing the time for the meeting of Congress, 383, 384. Opposes a freehold qualification for electors of representatives, 387. Prefers the term “inhabitant,” instead of “resident,” as a qualification for representatives, 389, 390. Objects to a very long term of citizenship being required for members of Congress 398, 411, 413. Objects to the legislature being allowed to fix the qualifications, pay or privileges, of its members, 404, 510. Proposes a provision to compel the attendance of members of Congress, 406. Objects to the expulsion of a member of Congress by loss than two thirds, 402. Doubts whether there can be a specific enumeration of the powers of Congress, 139. Doubts the propriety of using force against a state, 141, 171. Advocates a negative of Congress on the state laws, 171, 173, 251, 321, 539. Opposes exclusive right of House in regard to money bills, 188. Does not consider the origination of money bills by the House as important, 274. Objects to the exclusive power of the representatives over money bills, 394, 396, 417. His remarks on the negative of each House on the other, 382. Views on the prohibition of a tax on exports, 432, 455, 456. Thinks it better to prohibit bills of credit as a legal tender, than their emission by Congress, 434. Wishes to ont off all pretext of a paper currency, 435. Thinks that Congress should define the offences which it is authorized to punish, 437. Proposes to vest Congress with power in regard to the public lands, territories, Indians, a seat of government incorporations, copyrights patents, a university, and arsenals. 439, 440, 543, 544. Thinks Congress should have the regulation of the militia 444, 464, 465, 465. His views on the definition and punishment of treason, 447, 418, 549. Desires a provision for the debts and engagements of the Confederation, 463. Views on the provisions in regard to slaves, 477, 478 Views off a prohibition of the states in regard to laws affecting contracts, 485. Urges a prohibition oil the states to lay embargoes or taxes on imports or exports 485, 486. Desires a provision to give effect to the judgments of one state in another, 488, 504. Views as to a navigation act, 490. Thinks that no provision should be made to affect the claims of the United States and the individual states in regard to territory and the public lands, 496. Views on the regulation of commerce between the states, 502, 548. Advocates inferior national tribunals, 159. Opposes either diminution or increase in the compensation of the judges during their term, 330, 482. Prefers the appointment of the judges by the President, with the assent of the Senate, 349. Thinks the jurisdiction of the judiciary should be limited to cases of a judicial nature, and not extend to all arising under the Constitution, 483. His views on the mode of making and ratifying treaties, 469, 470, 524, 527. Wishes a permanent seat of government, 409. Views as to the mode of amending the Constitution, 531, 551. Views on the mode of ratifying the Constitution, 498, 499, 500. Prefers a ratification of the Constitution by conventions, instead et the legislatures of the states, 355. Urges ratification of the Constitution by conventions of the people, 157. Signs the Constitution, 565.

MAJORITY, a quorum of each House, 130, 378, 405, 432, 559. Tendencies of, to oppress the minority, 162. Of the people should prevail under the general government, 262.

MALPRACTICE, by the President, 149, 190, 339, 370, 376, 528. By the heads of departments, 446.

MANUFACTURES, superintendence of, 446. Encouragement of, 486.

MARBOIS, BARBÉ, 38. His intercepted letter, 16, 18, 19. Remarks on the conduct of the American commissioners, 66.

MARINE, department of, 442, 446, 462.

MARITIME cases under jurisdiction of judiciary, 131, 380, 563.

MARQUE, LETTER OF, not to be granted by a state, 131, 381, 510, 561.

MARTIN, ALEXANDER, attends the Federal Convention, 123. Desires that ineligibility of representatives be limited to offices created or augmented during their term, 230. Desires to increase the number of representatives from North Carolina, 291. Objects to seat of government being at any state capital, 374.

MARTIN, LUTHER, attends the Federal Convention, 174. Thinks the separation from Great Britain left each state sovereign and equal, 213, 217. His views of the extent of the federal or national government, 217, 248. Opposes any Confederation unless on equal grounds, 267, 270, 311. Is in favor of Mr. Patterson’s plan, 191. Is willing to adhere to the compromise giving the small states an equal vote in the Senate, 310. Proposes an election of the executive by electors chosen by the state legislatures, 324. Objects to the reëligibility of the President, 334, 338, 359. Disapproves of the President and judges as a council of revision, 346. Contends for all equal vote of the states in both branches of Congress, 248. Disapproves of the senators voting per capita, 357. Thinks the senators should be paid by their states, 427. Wishes representatives to be elected as the state legislatures direct, 223. Opposes the negative of Congress on the state laws, 248, 321. the effect of the laws of Congress and treaties more exactly defined, 322. Thinks the suppression of insurrections should be left to the states, 333. Objects to Congress introducing military force into a state to subdue rebellions, without its application, 437. Wishes the size of an army in time of peace to be limited by the Constitution, 443, Proposes to raise taxes by requisitions, 453. Thinks the regulation of the militia should be left to the states, 466. Desires a regulation in regard to trade between the states, 478. Wishes two thirds required to pass a navigation act, 489. Urges the appointment of the Judges by the Senate, 328. Thinks there should be no inferior tribunals except those of the states 331. Offers a provision in regard to confessions of treason, 450. Suggests that pardons be allowed only after conviction, 480. Wishes questions of territorial claim left to the judiciary, 497. Objects to oath of state officers to support the Constitution, 183. His views as to the provisions in regard to slaves, 457. Objects to any provision having the effect to guaranty the claims of the large states to the western territory, 493, 494, 495. Wishes the application of state executives for the protection of the general government to be limited to the recess of the legislature, 497. Prefers a ratification of the Constitution by the state legislatures, 500. Dissatisfied with the general character of the Constitution, 501.

MARYLAND, views on a cession of their public lands by the states, 59, 111, 112. Views on a system of general revenue, 59. Opposes a poll tax, 39. Adopts exclusive commercial regulations, 119. Violates the Articles of Confederation, 208. Sends delegates to the Federal Convention, 124, 144. Proportion of representation in the House of Representatives before a census, 129, 288, 290, 316, 375, 377. Proportion of representation in the Senate before a census, 129. Proportion of electors of President, 338, 339. Opinions on the Federal Constitution, 567.

MASON, GEORGE, attends the Federal Convention, 123. Objects to yeas and nays, 124. Objects to a mere Confederation, 133. Opposes unnecessary encroachment on the states, 170. Compares a national with a federal government, 216. Approves of the plan of compromise between the large and small states, 278, 283, 394. Objects to discriminations between the new and old states, 279, 294, 492. Opposed to the aristocratic notions that had been thrown out, 283. For seven years as the executive term, 142. Against the reëligibility of the President, 143. Views on the election of the President, 143, 324, 365, 368, 508, 512, 514, 515, 519. Objects to a dependence of the President on Congress, 147, 165. Advocates a power to remove the President, 147, 340. Thinks judiciary should be united with executive in a council of revision, 165, 345, 347. Is unwilling to intrust the President with the power to make war, 439. Opposes an executive during good behavior, 326. Views on the impeachment of the President, 340, 528. Is in favor of an executive council, 522. Thinks the power of the Senate in regard to treaties very dangerous, 427, 428. Wishes the Senate appointed by the state legislatures, 240. Suggests property qualification for senators, 247. Thinks three senators from each state too many, 357. Urges the election of the representatives by the people, 136, 161, 223. In favor of fixing the compensation of representatives, 185. Prefers biennial elections of the representatives, 225. Proposes that the representatives be twenty-five years of age, 228. Urges the ineligibility of representatives to office, 229, 230, 232, 233, 420, 506. Opposes a freehold qualification for electors of representatives, 386. Thinks previous residence of the representative in his district should be required, but not for too long a term, 390. Views as to the exclusive right of the representatives over money bills, 396, 397, 415, 427, 452. Wishes the term of citizenship for members of Congress extended, 398, 413. Contends that a quorum in Congress shall not be less than a majority, 405. Approves of the yeas and nays in Congress being required by one fifth, 497. Objects to members of Congress being paid by the states, 426. Thinks the Journal of Congress should be published, 408. Does not wish the number of the House of Representatives to be very small, 293. Desires the proportion of representation to be fixed from time to time according to a census, 294. Thinks the number of inhabitants the best rule of representation, 295. Thinks that blacks should, in justice, be counted equally in proportioning representation, but will not insist on it, 302. Doubts whether the rule of taxation should be fixed before a census, 307. Proposes a property qualification for members of Congress, 370. Thinks that persons having unsettled accounts should be disqualified as members of Congress, 370. His remarks on the negative of each House on the other, 382. Objects to fixing the exact time for the meeting of Congress, 383. Urges a prohibition of a tax on exports, 432, 456. Does not wish absolutely to prohibit Congress from emitting bills of credit, 434, 435. Thinks Congress should appoint a treasurer, 436. Views as to a power in Congress to regulate the militia, 440, 443, 444, 545. Desires a provision against a perpetual revenue, 440. Proposes a power in Congress to enact sumptuary laws, 447. Doubts the practicability of a negative in Congress on state laws, 468. His views as to the payment of the debts of the Confederation, 475. Approves of a provision for the general government to sat press insurrection, 332. Objects to the prohibition on the states in regard to laws affecting contracts, 485. Thinks the states should not be prohibited from laving embargoes, 486. Views as to navigation and trade between the states, 490, 538, 540, 552. Wishes the regulation relative to the effect of public acts of the states in each other to be confined to judicial proceedings, 504. Dislikes the appointment of the judges by the President, 328, 351, 522. Approves of the right of Congress to establish inferior national courts, 331. Opposes an increase or diminution of the compensation of the judges during their term, 482. Prefers the definition of treason in the British statute, 447. His relative to slaves, 458, 477, 478. Advocates amendment of the Constitution without the assent of Congress, 18, 551. Objects to the seat of government being at any state capital, 374. Thinks the Constitution should be ratified by the people in conventions, 352. Dissatisfied with the general character of the Constitution, 502, 552. Criticism on his objections to the Constitution, 572. Opinions on the ratification of the Constitution by Virginia, 568, 569, 570.

MASSACHUSETTS, redeems paper money beyond her quota, 7. Keeps troops without the consent of Congress, 120. Insurrection there in 1787, 94, 99, 119, 126. Appoints delegates to the Federal Convention, 123, 124, 126. Proportion of electors of President, 338, 339, 562. Proportion of representation in the Senate before a census, 129. Proportion of representation in the House of Representatives before a census, 129, 288, 290, 316, 375, 377, 559. Opinions on the Federal Constitution, 568,572. Proceedings in regard to the Constitution, 568.

MASSACHUSETTS LINE sends deputation to Congress, 26.

MEASURES, standard of, may be fixed by Congress, 130, 378, 434, 560.

MEETING, of Congress to be annual, 129 377, 383, 559. Of Congress to be fixed, 377, 383, 409, 559.

MEMBERS, (see Branch; Congress; Representatives; Senate,) of the Federal Convention, 123, 126, 132. Of Congress, their age, qualifications, and compensation, 127, 129, 130, 184, 185, 186, 189, 190, 205, 210, 226, 228, 230, 241, 246, 271, 370, 375, 377, 378, 379, 389, 397, 402, 411, 559. Their disabilities, 127, 128, 130, 185, 189, 190, 230, 247, 343, 370, 375, 377, 378, 379, 420, 452, 453. Their election and qualification to lie judged by each House, 129, 379, 401, 559.

MERCER, JOHN F., objects to states making valuation of lands, 47. Discusses retrospective effect of valuation, 47. Remarks on expert of tobacco under authority of Congress, 47. Objects to general system of revenue, 49, 54, 57, 61. Urges calling on Pennsylvania to restore goods seized while under passport, 50, 54. Proposes to appropriate impost to pay army first, 51, 53. Advocates new scale of depreciation 54, 57. Opposes commutation of half pay and funding the public debt, 59. Remarks on the conduct of American commissioners at Paris, 68, 69, 74, 75. Disapproves proposed convention of Eastern States, 80. Objects to proclamation relative to peace, 84. Moves to erase application to France for loan of three millions, 88. Remarks on disbanding army, 89, 90. Remarks on conduct of executive of Pennsylvania on the mutiny of the troops, 92. Attends the Federal Convention, 376. Advocates a freehold qualification for electors of representatives, 389. Object to residence as a necessary qualification of representatives, 390. Remarks on cession by Virginia of public lands, 92. Attends the Federal Convention, 376. Advocates a freehold qualification for electors of representatives, 389. Objects to residence as a necessary qualification of representatives, 390. His views on the exclusive power of the representatives on money bills, 394. Thinks a quorum in Congress should be less than a majority, 405, 406. Objects to the Senate having any but legislative powers, 408, 428. Objects to the exclusion of foreigners from Congress being retrospective, 412, 414. Thinks the appointment to office necessary to sustain a due executive influence, 421, 424. Objects to the judiciary declaring laws void, 429. Wishes the judiciary to have a revisionary power over the laws, 429. Is strenuous for prohibiting a tax on exports, 433. Approves of Congress establishing post-roads, 434. Opposes an exclusion of the power of Congress to emit bills of credit, 435. Thinks a treasurer should be appointed like other officers, 436. Objects to military force being introduced into a state by Congress, to subdue rebellion, without its previous application, 437.

MIFFLIN, THOMAS, sent to Rhode Island to urge impost, 14. Proposes publication of Carleton’s letters refusing to suspend hostilities, 81. Attends the Federal Convention, 124. Desires to confine the ineligibility of members of Congress to offices created or increased in value during their term, 420. Signs the Constitution, 565.

MIGRATION of slaves, 379, 457, 471, 477, 561.

MILITARY, force, when to be used, 128, 343, 379, 437. Force may be raised by Congress 130, 379, 442, 510, 553, 561. Reads may be established by Congress, 130. Operations not to be published in the Journal of Congress, 408. Its subordination, 445. Regulations in regard to it, 445.

MILITIA, inefficient under the Confederation, 127. Power of Congress in regard to its regulation, 130, 440, 443, 451, 454, 561. May be called out by Congress on certain occasions, 130, 379, 467, 561. Command of, by the President, 131, 205, 343, 380, 480, 562. Ought to be regulated by the states, 172.

MINISTERS. See Ambassadors.

MISDEMEANOR, 381, 487, 528.

MISSISSIPPI, navigation of, 98, 100, 101, 102, 105. 107, 487, 526.

MITCHELL, NATHANIEL, views of the operation of treaties on the states, 98. Views as to salaries, 99. Views as to Spain and the Mississippi, 103.

MONARCHY, too much power in the executive will make one 140, 148, 150. The best model for an executive, 203. British, 141, 159, 152, 237, 346. Inclination towards it, 147, 148, 149, 153, 154, 184, 202, 326, 514.Hopes of those friendly to, 120.

MONEY, only to be drawn from the treasury in pursuance of appropriations, 316, 375, 377, 415, 420, 427, 510. 529, 561. Paper not to be made a tender, 435. Bills about, must originate in the House of Representatives, 129, 188, 274, 282, 284, 310, 316, 375, 377, 394, 396, 410, 415, 427, 452, 510, 529, 560. Bills about, to be voted upon in proportion to contribution, 266. Bills, when and how altered, 274, 316, 375, 377, 394, 410, 415, 420, 428, 510, 529, 560.May be borrowed by Congress, 130, 378, 560.May be coined by Congress, 130, 378, 434, 560.Affairs to be made known to the people, 284.

MONROE, JAMES, speaks of a plan for a Federal Convention, 118.

MONTGOMERY, JOHN, proceedings as to goods seized when under passport, 28.

MORRIS, GOUVERNEUR, attends Federal Convention, 123. Objects to equal vote of large and small states in the Convention, 125. Presents letter from Rhode Island to the Convention, 125. Shows the difference between federal and national system, 133. His general views of a national as compared with a federal government, 270. Depicts the absolute necessity of a constitutional union, 276. His course towards the small states complained of, 278. Contends that an aristocracy will always exist, 283, 386. His view of the effect of the declaration of independence on the sovereignty of the states, 286. Thinks too much should not be yielded to the Southern States, 291, 297, 303, 308. His remarks An the conflict of northern and southern, eastern and western, interests, 308. His remarks An slavery, 392. Desires a compromise between the Northern and Southern States relative to slaves, navigation, and exports, 460. Views on the mode of electing the President, 322, 323, 335 473, 508, 509, 510, 513, 516, 519. In favor of an executive during good behavior, 325. Views as to the executive term and reëligibility, 335, 362, 474. Opposes the trial of impeachment of the President by the judges, 329. Thinks the President should be liable to impeachment, 343. Approves of the President and judges as a council of revision, 348. Views as to the President’s negative on laws, 385, 430, 536, 538. Wishes an executive council, 442. Proposes a council of state to assist the President, 446. Prefers the chief justice to the president of the Senate as provisional successor of the President, 480. His general views on the subject of the executive, 334, 361, 430, 473, 517. Approves of the appointment of a Vice-President, 522. Opposes an equality of suffrage for the states, 135, 277. Desires that the Senate should be an aristocratic body, 271. Wishes the Senate to he appointed for life, 271. Wishes the Senate to be appointed by the President, 272. Disapproves of appointments by the Senate, 350, 467. Prefers three senators from each state rather than two, 355. Objects to the dissent of senators being entered on the Journal, 407. Views in regard to the Senate, 516, 526. Contends for a representation according to property as well as numbers, 278, 297. Reports a plan for the ratio of representation in the House, both before and after a census, 287. Urges periodical adjustment of representation, 288. Is opposed to restraining Congress too much in regard to future adjustments of representation, 293, 298. Proposes that representation and direct taxation should be estimated by the same rule, 301, 302. Wishes the powers of the government settled before the question of representation is finally decided, 319. Thinks that representation should be apportioned to freemen, 392. Objects to a property qualification for members of Congress, 370. His remarks on the negative of each House on the other, 382. Objects to fixing the time for the meeting of Congress, 383, 384. Urges a freehold qualification for electors of representatives, 386. Objects to residence being a necessary qualification for a representative, 389. Wishes the legislature to be left at large to fix the qualifications of its members, 404. Thinks a quorum in Congress should be less than a majority, 405. Thinks a majority should be allowed to expel a member of Congress, 407. Thinks the yeas and nays in Congress might be required by one member, 407. Objects to the exclusion of foreigners from Congress being retrospective, 412, 413. Objects to ranking officers of the army and navy ineligible to Congress, 422, 425. Suggests the propriety of requiring three fourths of each House to repeal laws when the President does not concur, 429, 536, 537. Objects to making members of Congress ineligible to office, 505. Disapproves of exclusive origination of money bills by the representatives, 282, 283, 394, 397, 416. Opposes too great a restraint on Congress as regards state laws, 326. Opposes a negative by Congress on state laws as unnecessary, 321, 468. Opposes the prohibition to tax exports, 433, 454. Opposes the power of Congress to emit bills of credit, 434. Advocates the power in Congress to subdue rebellions; 438. opposes a power in Congress to enact sumptuary laws, 447. Remarks on attainders and ex post facto laws, 462. Desires a provision for the debts and engagements of the Confederation, 464, 476. Desires the introduction of the term “slaves,” in the provisions respecting them, 477, 478. Proposes a provision in regard to suspending the writ of habeas corpus, 484. Objects to a prohibition on the states in regard to laws affecting contracts, 485. Thinks the states should be prohibited from taxing exports or imports 487. Proposes a provision relative to the judicial and legislative acts of the states, 488, 504. Objects to any provision tainting to injure navigation, 489. Approves of a provision prohibiting a religious test, 498. Approves of a uniform bankrupt law, 504. Prefers an appointment of judges by the President With the advice of the Senate, 330. Objects to the limitation on Congress to increase the compensation of the judges, 331, 482. Approves of inferior national courts, 331. Opposes the removal of the judges on application of Congress, 481. Views as to the provisions respecting treason, 448, 449, 450. Objects to a guaranty in regard to the existing laws of the states, 332. Views on the treaty power, 524, 526. Proposes that treaties be ratified by law, 459. Views as to annexing conditions with new states on their admission, 288, 298, 492. Views as to provisions in regard to the territory and public lands of the United states and the states, 493, 495, 497. Thinks assent of the states should be required for purchases therein, 512. Opposes rotation in office, 366. Thinks Congress should be at liberty to call a convention to amend the Constitution, 498. Proposes to submit the Constitution to a second general convention, 356. Views as to the mode of ratifying the Constitution, 498, 499, 500, 501, 502. Views on the Constitution as adopted, 556. Suggests the form of signing the Constitution, 555. Signs the constitution, 565. Examines Mr. Madison’s report of his speech of May 2, 1787, 122.

MORRIS, ROBERT. See Finance. Dr. Lee inimical to him, 62, 80. His Character and services vindicated, (2. Proposes a credit to the states redeeming more than their quotas 7. Represents his difficulties and the impossibility of relieving the army, 21. Lays the state of the finances before a committee of Congress, 21, 26. Conference with him on the arrears of the army, 24. Communicates to Congress his intention to resign, 29, 62. Makes a provision privately for paying a portion of the arrears to the army, 30. Proposes a general system of revenue 64. Represents the low state of public credit, 67. Call by Dr. Lee for a specific report from, 88. Congress examines the department of finance; 88, 91. Attends the Federal Convention, 123. Proposes Gen. Washington as President, 123. Objects to equal vote of large and small states in the Convention, 125. Proposes that the term of the Senate be during good behavior, 241. Signs the Constitution, 565. Not a native of the United States, 412.

N.

NANTUCKET applies for licenses for wireless, 73.

NASH, ABNER, represents North Carolina, in Congress, 1. Sent to Rhode Island to urge impost, 14. Voted for as president of Congress, 1.

NATIONS. See Law Of Nations.

NATIONAL GOVERNMENT, Mr. Madison’s views as to what its powers should be, 107.

NATIONAL SYSTEM, objected to, in the designation of the government, 132, 214. Compared with a federal one, 133, 191, 193, 198, 199, 206, 214, 220, 256. Not to encroach unnecessarily on the states, 139. Requires to he strengthened against the states, 201, 256. Will destroy the states, 202. Only one fitted for an extensive country, 202. Adopted, in preference to a federal one, 212. Ought not to destroy the states, 212.

NATIVE, members of Congress should be, 398, 411. President to be, 507, 521, 562.

NATURALIZATION, law of, to be uniform, 143,378, 560. Provision to be made for, 120, 398, 411.

NAVIGATION, licenses to protect whalers, 73. Fostered by treaty with Russia, 89. Of the Mississippi, 97, 100, 101, 101, 102, 105, 107. Protection of, 119. Of the Potomac, 570. Internal, 446. How to be passed in Congress, 130, 379, 461, 471, 489, 534. Compromise between the Northern and Southern States relative to, 460, 461, 471, 489.

NAVY, reorganization of department of, 82. Stipulation against one on the lakes, 89. Power of Congress in regard to, 130, 379, 443, 561. Command of, by the President, 131, 205, 380, 562. Not to be kept by states during peace, 131, 381, 548, 561. Eligibility of this officers to Congress, 422, 425. Superintendence of, 446.

NEGATIVE, of state laws by Congress, 108, 121, 127, 132, 140, 170, 190, 193, 210, 215, 248, 321, 468, 548. Of legislative acts by a council of revision, 128, 151, 164, 344, 428. Of legislative acts by the President, 130, 151, 100, 205, 328, 348, 349, 358, 376, 385, 534, 500. Of the Senate on state laws, 173. Of the Senate on appointments by the President, 349, 507, 523, 562. Of one House on the other, 377, 382, 415. Of the British king, 151, 152, 171, 346. Of Parliament on colonial laws, 173.

NEGLECT by executive, ground of impeachment, 149, 190, 340, 369, 376.

NEGOTIATIONS, with the British for peace, at Paris, 65. With the British, relative to a commercial treaty, 88. With Spain, 97, 100, 102, 107. With Sweden, 12. Conduct of France during those for peace, 16, 65, 68, 73, 74. Propriety of disclosing their situation, 42. With Gardoqui, 97, 100, 102.

NEGROES. See Slaves. Proposal to exclude them, in fixing quota of taxation, 48, 79. To be reported, by states, to Congress, 46. Their proportion to whites, in fixing the proportion of contribution, 79, 81, 82. British required to deliver those taken, 88, 90.

NEUTRALITY, 91.

NEWBURG LETTERS, 32.

NEW HAMPSHIRE, her delegates in Congress, November, 1782, 1. Redeems paper money beyond her quota. Opposes a commutation of half pay, 44. Interested in a general revenue, 59. Refuses to join the proposed convention of the Eastern States, 81. Number of inhabitants, and proportion of contribution in 1783, 82. Votes for Mr. Boudinot as president, 1. Appoints delegates to the convention at Annapolis, 115. Delegates to the Federal Convention, 261, 351. Proportion of representation in the House of Representatives before a census, 129, 288, 290, 316, 375, 377, 559. Proportion of representation in the Senate before a census, 129. Proposal to change its proportion of representation, 290, 306. Proportion of electors of President, 338, 339. Proceedings of its legislature on the Federal Constitution, 567. Opinions there on the Federal Constitution, 570, 573.

NEW JERSEY, her delegates in Congress, November, 1782, 1. Objects to military measures against Vermont, 9. Opposes a commutation of half pay, 44. Instructions relative to the valuation of land, 46. Interested in a general revenue and system of public lands, 59. Number of inhabitants and proportion of contribution in 1784, 82. Instructions relative to census of public land, 91, 92. Desires to confine Virginia within the Alleghany, 93. Averse to Cyrus Griffin as President of Congress, 572. Her situation during the Confederation in regard to foreign commerce, 112. Sends delegates to the convention at Annapolis, 115. Sends delegates to the Federal Convention, 123, 220. Proportion of representation in the House of Representatives before a census, 129, 288, 290, 316, 375, 377. Proportion of representation in the Senate before a census, 129. Will resist a representation in which the states are not equal, 177. Opposes a departure from the principles of the Confederation, 191. Her resistance to the requisitions of Congress, 207. Proportion of electors of President, 338, 339. Opinions on the Federal Constitution, 567, 568, 570.

NEW ORLEANS, 97.

NEW STATES, See States, Vermont, Kentucky. Rule of voting in the Confederation when new states are received, 92. One in Western Pennsylvania proposed, 10, 32. One in Western North Carolina proposed, 92. Maine looks for admission, 572. Provision to be made in the Constitution for their admission, 128, 157, 190, 211, 376, 381. May be admitted by Congress, 132, 157, 192, 381, 492, 493, 550, 564. Proposed to restrain them as to right of representation, 279, 288, 297, 298, 299, 310. Conditions on their admission, 381, 492.

NEW YORK CITY proposed as seat of Congress, 102, 409, 574.

NEW YORK STATE, her delegates in Congress, November, 1782, 1. Charged with interfering with Vermont, 4. Interested in a general revenue, 59. Number of inhabitants and proportion contribution in 1783, 82. Votes for Mr. Nash as president, 1. Sends delegates to the convention at Annapolis, 115. Proposes a general convention to revise the Confederation, 75, 117. Delegates to the Federal Convention, 95, 106, 123, 144. Proportion of representation in the House of Representatives before a census, 129, 288, 290, 316, 375, 377. Proportion of representation in the Senate before a census, 129. Opposes a departure from the principles of the Confederation, 191. Proportion of electors of President, 338, 339.

NOMINATION, of senators, by the state legislatures, 128, 137, 138. Of judges by the Senate, subject to the assent of the President, 350.

NOBILITY, no title of, to be conferred by Congress, 130, 379. No title to be conferred by the states, 131, 381, 561. Cannot exist in the United States, 148, 235, 237, 379.

NORTH CAROLINA, her delegates in Congress, November, 1782, 1. Advocates valuation of land being made by the stages, 47. Interested in a general revenue, 60. Number of inhabitants, and proportion of contribution, in 1781, 82. New state in proposed, 92. Communicates to Congress discontents in the west in regard to Spain, 101. Opinions there on Federal Constitution, 571. Her situation daring the Confederation in regard to foreign commerce, 112. Appoints delegates to the convention at Annapolis, 115. Sends delegates to the Federal Convention, 123. Proportion of representation in the House of Representatives before a census, 129, 288, 290, 316, 375, 377, 559. Proportion of representation in the Senate before a census, 129. Proposal to increase the proportion of representation, 292. Proportion of electors of President, 338, 339.

NUMBER, of inhabitants to form rule of representation in the legislature, 127, 129, 130, 149, 278, 290, 294, 316, 375, 377, 392. Of people to be ascertained by census, 129, 130, 279, 288, 994, 301, 302, 307, 316, 375, 377, 379, 559. Of which the House of Representatives is to consist before a census, 129, 130, 279, 288, 294, 301, 302, 307, 316, 375, 377, 379, 559. Of which the house of Representatives is to consist, 129, 279, 288, 294, 375, 377, 394, 452, 512, 530, 534, 557. Of which the Senate is to consist before a census, 129. Of which the Senate is to consist, 129, 137, 139, 166, 266, 311, 356, 377, 559. Of which the executive is to consist, 140, 149, 192, 195, 197, 205, 322, 358, 375, 380, 471, 561. Of states required to ratify the Constitution, 158, 354, 381, 498, 533. Of inhabitants authorizing a representative, 274, 278, 288, 377, 390. Of slaves to be included in apportioning representation, 192, 281, 288, 290, 300, 302, 316, 375, 377, 379, 391, 559. Of inhabitants to form the rule of direct taxation, 302, 316, 375, 379. Of electors of President, 338, 339, 362, 507, 529, 562. Of senators from each state, 356, 377, 559. Necessary for a quorum in Congress, 130, 378, 405, 559. Of representatives of the large states to be limited, 452. Necessary to convict on impeachment, 529.

O.

OATH, to support the Constitution, 198, 157, 182, 190, 351, 881, 564. To be taken by the President, 131, 380, 481, 562. Not to be accompanied with a religious test, 446, 498, 564. To be taken by senators, in trying impeachments, 529, 559.

OBLIGATION OF CONTRACTS, 485, 581.

OFFENCES, against law of nations to be legislated on by Congress, 139, 378, 487, 561. To be tried in the state where committed, 131, 381, 563. Against the Constitution to be adjudged in the state courts, 192. To be defined by Congress, 437.

OFFICE, no other to be held by judges, 192. Senators to be eligible to these of the states, 247. Electors of President not to hold, 343, 515, 520, 562. Persons convicted on impeachment to be removed from, 381, 446, 559. Appointment to national ones by the state authorities, 475. No appointment to be made to any not previously created by law, 474, 528, 529. Not to be held by members of the legislature, 127, 130, 185, 189, 190, 229, 230, 247, 375, 378, 420, 503, 505, 560. Term of that of President, 128, 190, 192, 203, 205, 325, 335, 338, 342, 375, 380, 552. Term of that of judiciary, 128, 131, 156, 190, 330, 376, 380, 563. Appointment to, by the President and Senate, 131, 329, 349, 507, 516, 524, 562. Appointment to, by the Senate, 131, 156, 379. Appointment to, by the President, 141, 155, 190, 325, 329, 334, 369, 376, 383, 421, 474. Rotation in, 142. Avidity in seeking it, 146. Appointment to, by Congress, 128, 155.

OFFICERS, (see Army, Half Pay,) of the army ought not to be promoted by districts, 10. Civil, appointed by Congress, 35. Of the army to be indemnified, 80. Of the states to take an oath to support the Constitution, 128, 157, 183, 191, 564. Of the House of Representatives to be chosen by it, 129, 377, 559. Of the Senate to be chosen by it, 129, 377, 401, 559. Of the government cannot be members of the legislature, 127, 130, 189, 190, 373, 375, 378, 420, 560. To be commissioned by the President, 131, 380, 562. Liable to impeachment, 188, 380, 446, 559. Their compensation to be fixed by the representatives, 274. To possess property qualification, 371. Of the army and navy ineligible in Congress, 422, 424. Appointment of those of the militia, 443, 445, 451, 464, 561. Ineligible to other offices, 446. Not to accept presents or titles, 467, 561. None to be appointed to offices not previously created by law, 474. Not to be appointed electors of President, 343, 515, 520, 562. To be removed on conviction, under an impeachment, 529, 559.

OPINIONS, of the judges to be given to the President and Congress, 445. Of the members of the council to be given to the President, 446. Of the heads of departments to be given to the President, 507, 525, 562.

ORDINANCE, relative to Court of Appeals, 2. Relative to franking, 12. Relative to captures, 16, 18. Relative to piracy, 44.

ORIGINATION, of acts to belong to each branch of the legislature, 127, 139, 375, 378. Of money bills must be in the House of Representatives, 129, 188, 274, 282, 316, 375, 377, 394, 397, 410, 414, 423, 427, 452, 510, 529, 560.

OSGOOD, SAMUEL, represents Massachusetts in Congress, 1. Opposes partial exchanges of prisoners, 1. Proposes to fill vacancy in Court of Appeals, 2. Sent to Rhode Island to urge impost, 14. Opposes disclosure of negotiations relative to confiscations and British debts, 26. Remarks on proportion of freemen to slaves in fixing contributions of states, 79. Explains character of the proposed convention of Eastern States, 80.

P.

PAMPHLET of Lord Sheffield, 99.

PAPER MONEY, redeemed by states beyond their quotas, to be credited, 7, 14. Plan for redeeming it, 8, 14. Its depreciation in 1782, 14, 18. New emissions by states feared, 120. Difficulties under the Confederation, 112, 119, 126. Emission of, by Congress, 130, 378, 434, 435. Prohibited to the states, 131, 172, 208, 381, 484, 561.

PARDON, granted by the President, 131, 380, 480, 549, 562. Not to extend to impeachments, 131, 380, 480, 562. In cases of treason, 435.

PARLIAMENT, speech to, December 5, 1782, 50.

PASSPORTS, extent to which trade under them should be allowed, 43, 47. Colonel Laurens applies to British for one, 1. Goods seized when under passport to prisoners, 28, 50, 54.

PATENTS, power of Congress in regard to, 440, 511, 560.

PATTERSON, WILLIAM, attends Federal Convention, 123. Urges the settlement of the proportion of representation, 157. Thinks the proper object of the Convention a mere revision and extension of the Articles of Confederation, 176. Wishes to preserve efficiency of the state governments, 176. Offers a plan in a series of resolutions, 191. His plan compared with that of Mr. Randolph, 193, 207. Thinks plan of Mr. Randolph beyond the authority of the Convention, 194. Contends for the states having an equal vote, 194, 195. Wishes the laws of the Confederation to be acted upon through the state judiciaries, 195. His plan rejected, 211. Wishes New Hampshire delegates sent for, 261. Complains of the course pursued towards the small states, 278, 318. Insists on the equal vote of the states in the Senate, 286, 318. Objects to a proportional representation in either House, 289. Proposes the election of the President by electors appointed by the states, 336. Signs the Constitution, 565.

PAY, provision for asked by army, 24, 55. Report on providing for, 44. Discussion on pay of army, 55, 57, 61, 64, 72, 73. Amount of, 83. Of the President, 128, 131, 145, 190, 343, 369, 376, 380, 562. That of President not to be increased or diminished during his term, 128, 131, 153, 369, 376, 380, 562. Of President to be paid out of the national treasury, 343, 369. Of electors of President, 344. Of the senators, 127, 130, 187, 190, 246, 271, 375, 378, 404, 425, 560. Of senators to be paid by the states, 187, 246, 378, 381. Of the representatives, 127, 130, 185, 190, 225, 230, 375, 378, 404, 425, 560. Of members of Congress to be paid out of the national treasury, 185, 189, 225, 230, 426. Of members of Congress to be paid by the states, 210, 226, 378. How that of members of Congress should be fixed, 404, 426. That of judges, 128, 156, 190, 330, 376, 383, 481, 563. No increase or diminution of that of judges during their term, 128, 156, 190, 330, 376, 380, 482, 563. It ought to be adequate, 136, 228, 482. Struggles to obtain it, 147. It ought to be fixed, 184, 227, 426, 427.

PAYMENT, no tender to be authorized by the states but gold or silver, 131, 381, 561.

PEACE, negotiations by British at Paris, 65. Extent to which France is to control its terms, 18. Prospects of peace, 50. Conduct of the American commissioners toward France in negotiating, 31, 68, 73, 74. News of signing preliminaries, 74, 84. Proclamation of, 84. Peace establishment, 82. Members of Congress may be arrested for breach of, 130, 378, 560. When troops may be kept during, 131, 381, 445. Ought not to depend on the executive, 140. Cases affecting national, to be tried by national judiciary, 188, 332, 376. To be made by Congress, 439.

PENNSYLVANIA, her contest with Connecticut, 19. Her delegates in Congress, November, 1782, 1. Proposes to provide for public creditors within her own state, 5, 11, 34, 36, 42. New state within her limits proposed, 10. Proceedings relative to goods sent to prisoners under passport, 27, 50, 54. Petition of some inhabitants for new state, 31. Controversy with Virginia about territory, 32. Large amount of public debt held by her citizens, 42. Complains of obscurity of ordinance about piracy, 44. Desires to confine Virginia within the Alleghany, 93. Arbitrary conduct of its colonial governors, 152. Violates the Articles of Confederation, 208. Sends delegates to the Federal Convention, 123, 124. Proposes Gen. Washington as President of the Convention, 123. Objects to equal vote of large and small states in the Convention, 125. Desires a proportional representation in both branches of Congress, 240. Proportion of electors of President, 338, 339. Proportion of representation in the Senate before a census, 129. Proportion of representation in the House of Representatives before a census, 129, 288, 290, 316, 375, 37? Proceedings of legislature on the Federal constitution, 567, 572. Opinions there on the Federal Constitution, 567, 569, 573. Ratifies the Federal Constitution, 569.

PENNSYLVANIA TROOPS, mutinous conduct towards Congress, 91, 92, 93.

PENSIONERS, disqualification of, as members of Congress, 373.

PEOPLE, to elect the representatives, 127, 136, 375, 377, 558. Of the several states to ratify the Constitution, 128, 157, 352, 376, 564. Ought to be represented in the House of Representatives, 136. To elect the senators, 138. To elect the executive, 142, 143, 144, 322, 324. Of the states establish the Constitution, 376, 382, 558. Their sentiments on the new Constitution, 196.

PERSONS, as to them, as a rule of taxation under the Confederation, 48, 64, 78. It is contended that this should include slaves, 24. To be reported by states to Congress, 47.

PETERS, RICHARD, proposes pledge of secrecy in certain cases, 22. Proposes application to France for further loan, 22, 23, 26. Considers impost the only practicable tax, 21. Mentions determination of army to have their pay provided for, 55. Remarks on conduct of American commissioners at Paris, 70. In favor of disbanding the army, 90. Urges increase of salary of secretary of foreign affairs, 90. Remarks on cessions of public lands, 91. Confers with executive of Pennsylvania on mutinous conduct of troops, 92.

PETITION for new state within Pennsylvania, 31.

PIERCE, WILLIAM, attends the Federal Convention, 136. In favor of a representation of the people in the House of Representatives, 163. In favor of the states being represented in the Senate, 163. Proposes three years as the senatorial term, 186.

PINCKNEY, CHARLES, attends the Federal Convention, 123. Appointed on committee to prepare rules for Convention, 124. Submits a plan of a Constitution, 128. (Appendix, No. 2, 578.) His plan referred to committee of the whole, 132. His general views on the nature of a Constitution, the position of the people of the Union, and the objects to be sought, 233, 238. Proposes as a compromise between the large and small states, to divide the Senate into classes with an apportionment among them, 270, 311. Not satisfied with the proposed compromise between the large and small states, 283. His plan referred to committee of detail, 376. Opposes increase of executive power, 140. In favor of a single executive, 140, 149. Views on the election of the President, 323, 512, 519. Proposes that no person shall be President for more than six years in twelve, 365. His views as to an executive council, 442. Advocates a long term of citizenship for senators, 398. Thinks property should be considered in fixing the ratio of representation, 281. Thinks that, in apportioning the representation by numbers, the blacks and whites should be counted equally, 305. Wishes a property qualification for members of Congress, 373. Opposes a provision to disqualify persons having unsettled accounts as members of Congress, 373. Desires a property qualification for the executive, judiciary, and members of the legislature, 402. Wishes the ineligibility of members of Congress confined to offices created or increased in value during their term, 420, 423. Opposes the ineligibility of members of Congress to office, 504, 506. Objects to Congress altering the state regulations relative to the election of members of Congress, 401. Thinks that the laws of naturalization and citizenship should not be restricted by those adopted by the states, 413. Proposes to vest the power of declaring war in the Senate, 438. Proposes to vest Congress with power in regard to a seat of government, seminaries, incorporations, patents, copyrights, promotion of science, public debt, letters of marque, and stages on post-roads, 440. Thinks Congress should have power to regulate the militia, 444. Proposes clauses in regard to the privileges of Congress, the opinions of the judges, the writ of habeas corpus, the liberty of the press, troops, ineligibility to office religious tests, and the corporate power of the United States, 445, 446. Views on the provisions relative to places, 458. Suggests a prohibition relative to presents and titles, 467. Advocates a negative in Congress on state laws, 408. Suggests a provision relative to suspending the writ of habeas corpus, 484. Proposes a provision for bankruptcies and protested bills of exchange, 488. Thinks no navigation act should be passed without two thirds, 489. Views of the commerce between the states, 489. Approves of a prohibition of a religious test, 498. Desires a right to Congress to negative state laws, 170, 322. Prefers the appointment of judges by the legislature, 188. Thinks the judiciary should not be blended with the legislature in their functions, 429. Views as to appointments, 350, 523. Proposes that fugitive slaves be delivered up, 487. Thinks unanimous ratification of the Constitution by the states should not be required, 158. Signs the Constitution, 565.

PINCKNEY, CHARLES C., attends the Federal Convention, 123. Doubts whether Constitution should deviate far from the Confederation, 133. Desires a more effective government, 133. Proposes seven years as the executive term, 142. Disapproves of the impeachment of the President by the legislature, 341, 343. Thinks the Senate should be permanent and independent, 170. Thinks the Senate should be chosen by the state legislatures, 170. Proposes that states should be classified and represented in the Senate according to their importance, 174. Urges four years as the senatorial term, 241, 242. Wishes the senators should receive no compensation, 246. Wishes senators to be eligible to state offices, 247. Proposes that the representatives shall be elected by the state legislatures, 160, 163, 223, 224. Opposes exclusive right of the House in regard to money bills, 189, 394. Objects to making the representatives ineligible to state offices, 230. Considers the origination of money bills by the House of Representatives unimportant, 284. Contends for the southern interest in fixing the proportion of representation, 291, 296. Thinks that, in fixing representation by numbers, blacks and whites should be equally estimated, 296. In favor of fixing the same rule for representation and direct taxation, 302, 303. Requires a guaranty relative to the emancipation of slaves and duties on exports, 357, 487. Remarks on the power of Congress to raise an army, 443. Thinks Congress should have power re regulate the militia, 443, 444. Views on the provisions i n regard to slaves, 357, 460, 477. Proposes a regulation in regard to trade between the states, 479. Objects to a restriction on the increase of the compensation of judges, 482. Approves of prohibiting a religious test, 498. Wishes a specific enumeration of the powers of Congress, 140. Doubts whether there should be a power to amend the Constitution, 157. Signs the Constitution, 565.

PIRACY, judiciary to have jurisdiction over, 128, 187, 192, 563. Congress may legislate upon, 130, 378, 562.

PLAN, of union, proposed by Mr. Madison, 120. Of Constitution, proposed by Mr. Randolph, 121, 127. Of Mr. Randolph discussed, 132, 189. Of Mr. Randolph reported, as amended, 189. Of Mr. Randolph, as amended, reported as the basis of the Constitution, 211. Of Mr. Patterson proposed, 191. Of Mr. Patterson rejected, 211. Of Mr. Patterson referred to the committee of detail, 376. Of Mr. Randolph and Mr. Patterson compared, 193, 201, 206, 207. Of Mr. Hamilton, 205. (Appendix, 584.) Of Mr. Hamilton discussed, 198. Of Mr. Pinckney, 128. (Appendix, 578.) Of Mr. Pinckney referred to the committee of detail, 376. Federal and national contrasted, 133, 191, 193, 198, 206. As adopted by the Convention, in a series of resolutions referred to a committee of detail, 375. Of a Constitution, reported by the committee of detail, 377. Of a Constitution, reported by the committee of revision, 535. Of a Constitution finally adopted by the Convention, 558. Of compromise between the large and small states on the subject of representation, 260, 266, 270, 273, 274, 282, 283, 310, 318, 511, 514. Of throwing the states into one mass, and dividing them again, 194, 202, 211.

PLURALITY of executive discussed, 140, 149, 150, 192, 195, 197, 322, 358.

POLAND, 204, 364.

POLICE, that of the states ought not to be interfered with, 320, 462.

POLLOCK, OLIVER, 88.

POLL TAX, to be in proportion to inhabitants, 130, 305, 316.

POSTS, those held by British, 88.

POST-OFFICES may be established by Congress, 130, 191, 378, 560.

POST-ROADS may be established by Congress, 130, 560. Regulation of states on them, 440, 441.

POWERS distribution of, by the Constitution, 133, 193, 337, 375, 377, 382. Of Congress, 127, 130, 131, 139, 190, 191, 205, 317, 320, 375, 378, 439, 445, 447, 506, 560. Of the executive, 140, 190, 205, 334, 376, 380, 507, 562. Of the national government should be strictly limited, 161. States seeking to increase theirs, 200.

PRAYERS proposed in Convention, 254.

PRESIDENT, of Congress elected, 1. Of Congress summons it at Trenton, 94. Cyrus Griffin elected, 572. Of Pennsylvania, his conduct in regard to mutiny of troops, 92, 93.

PRESIDENT OF THE CONVENTION, General Washington chosen, 123. To decide questions of order without appeal or debate, 125.

PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. See Executive.

PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE, to fill the vacancy in the presidency, 131, 380, 473, 480. How chosen, 377, 401. To be a member of the executive council, 442, 462. His vote on the election of President, 472, 473. The Vice-President to be, 507, 522.

PRESS, liberty of, not to be abridged, 131, 445.

PRISONERS, discussion in Congress on principles to be adopted on exchange of, 1, 25. Settlement of their accounts, 4. Allowed to hire themselves, 15. Goods to be sent to, under passports, 27, 28, 50, 54. Discharge of, 84, 85, 86, 88.

PRIVILEGE, of representatives and senators, 130, 378, 404, 445, 510, 560. Of habeas corpus, when suspended, 131, 445, 561. Of citizens in cecil state to be extended to them in the others, 132, 381, 563.

PRIVY COUNCIL. See Council, Executive.

PROCLAMATION, of British on cessation of hostilities, 84. Of Congress on cessation of hostilities, 84. For meeting of Congress at Trenton, 94.

PROHIBITION, in regard to the migration or importation of slaves, 379, 391, 532, 561. On certain acts of the states, 131, 381, 391, 484, 485, 561. In regard to a tax on exports, 130, 302, 357, 379, 391, 432, 453, 561. In regard to the emission of bills of credit, 434, 484, 561. In regard to attainders and ex post facto laws, 462, 561. In regard to presents and titles, 467, 561. On Congress, 130, 379, 445, 456, 462, 469, 471, 477, 479, 561. On the states, 131, 381, 460, 479, 480, 561.

PROMOTION, according to districts, opposed, 10. Of Major Burner proposed, 58. Of science by Congress, 440, 511, 561.

PROPERTY, substituted for money by state laws under the Confederation, 120. Qualification for members of Congress, 247, 272, 370, 378, 402. That of the states should be represented in the Senate, 260, 276. Should be represented in the House of Representatives as well as numbers, 278, 281, 297, 298, 303. Qualification for electors of representatives, 385. Qualification for the executive, 371, 403. Qualification for the judiciary, 371, 403.

PROPORTION, of representation in the legislature to be according to contribution, 127, 134, 149, 178, 281, 288. Of representation in the legislature to be according to the number of inhabitants, 127, 129, 130, 134, 149, 178, 190, 192, 274, 278, 288, 294, 316, 375, 377, 379, 559. Of senators to be fixed by the representatives after a census, 131. Of representation to exist in the Senate as well as in the House, 138, 312, 313. Of representation to be the same in both Houses, 182, 238. Of contribution to be the number of freemen and three fifths of the slaves, 192, 281, 288, 290, 304, 316, 375, 379, 391, 559. Whether it ought to exist in the representation, 197, 238, 248, 250. Of representation of the states in the Senate should be according to their property, 260, 276. Of representatives to be one for a certain number of inhabitants, 274, 278, 288, 377, 392, 559. Of representation in the House of Representatives according to property, 278, 296. Of representation should be different between the new and old states, 279, 298. Of representation in the Senate to be equal among the states, 274, 285, 310, 317, 375, 377, 559. Of representation in the House of Representatives before a census, 129, 288, 290, 316, 375, 377, 559. Of representation in the House of Representatives, 192, 278, 281, 288, 294, 375, 377, 392, 530, 534, 557. Of representation and direct taxation to be the same, 302, 305, 316, 375, 377, 391, 559. Of taxation before a census, 306, 307, 316, 451, 453. Of representation to be regulated by a periodical census, 126, 130, 131, 279, 288, 293, 294, 301, 308, 316, 375, 377, 379, 559. Of electors of the executive among the states, 338, 339, 507, 520, 562.

PROTECTION of the states against foreign and domestic violence, 126, 130, 132, 333, 376, 381, 497, 564.

PROTEST of senators, 407.

PROVISIONAL ARTICLES, discussion on ratification of, 85, 86.

PUBLIC LAND. See Land.

PUBLIC DEBT. See Debt.

PUBLICATION, of proceedings of Convention provided against, 125, 126. Of Journal of both Houses of Congress, 130, 378, 407, 560. When that of the Journal of Congress may be omitted, 130, 378, 408, 560.

PUNISHMENT, of offences at sea, 130, 378, 436, 561. Of counterfeiting, 130, 378, 436, 560. Of offences against the law of nations, 130, 378, 436, 561. Of treason, 130, 379, 563. Of offences against the Constitution to be adjudged in the state courts, 192. Of persons convicted on impeachment, 381, 559. Of breaches of the privilege of Congress, 445.

PURCHASE to be made in the states with their assent, 411, 507, 561.

PURSE not to be united with the sword, 165.

Q.

QUALIFICATION, of President, 462, 521, 562. Of property, for the President, 371, 403. Of senators, 127, 186, 189, 245, 247, 370, 375, 377, 398, 402, 414, 559. Of representatives, 127, 129, 137, 186, 189, 228, 370, 375, 377, 389, 402, 411, 559. Of electors of representatives, 129, 377, 385, 559. Of representatives to be judged of by the House, 129, 378, 559. Of property, for electors of representatives, 385. Of property, for members of Congress, 247, 271, 370, 377, 403. Of members of each House to be judged by itself, 378, 559. Of property, for the judiciary, 371, 403. No religious one to be required, 446, 498.

QUORUM, of Federal Convention to consist of seven states, 124. Of each House, a majority, 130, 377, 405, 559. During an election of President by the House of Representatives, 519, 520. Of the Senate when acting on treaties, 527.

QUOTA, Congress have no means of enforcing its payment, 112. Again apportioned by Congress among the states, 92. Surplus of, to be credited at certain rates, 7. Revision of, proposed, 16, 58. Discussion as to mode of fixing, 21, 24, 45, 47, 77, 78, 79, 82. Virginia unable to pay hers, 33. Proposal of abatement in certain cases, 58, 77.

R.

RAMSAY, DAVID, represents South Carolina in Congress, 1. Proposes conditional exchange of Cornwallis for Col. H. Laurens, 7. Praises Gen. Greene, 25. Advocates publication of negotiations relative to confiscations and British debts, 26. Advocates establishment of permanent revenue, 33, 41. Opposes military force to retake goods seized while under passport, 50. Advocates limiting duration of impost, 54.

RANDOLPH, EDMUND, is written to by Mr. Madison on public affairs, 106 to 108, 567 to 576. Appointed a delegate to Annapolis in 1786, 113, 114. Receives from Mr. Madison remarks as to plan of new Federal Constitution, 107, 121. Attends the Federal Convention, 123. Opens the business of the Convention, 126. His views of the government that is needed, and the defects of the Confederation, 127, 197. His resolutions referred to a committee of the whole, 128. His resolutions discussed in a committee of the whole, 132 to 189. His resolutions reported to the Convention, as amended, 189. His plan compared with that of Mr. Patterson, 193. His views on a national and federal system, 197. His plan, as amended, adopted as the basis of the Constitution, 212. Remarks on a compromise between the large and small states relative to representation, 272, 317, 414. Wishes daily prayers in the Convention, 254. Opposes an enlargement of the undefined powers of Congress, 320. Wishes a compromise on the subject of exports and slaves, 461. Opposes a single executive, 141, 149, 153. Opposes an increase of power in the President, 153. Opposes an absolute negative in the President, 154. Desires some provision for the impeachment of the President, 342. Views on the election of President, 174, 337, 508, 510, 514. Wishes the Senate to be much smaller than the House of Representatives, 138. Advocates seven years for the duration of the Senate, 186, 241. Wishes a provision to supply vacancies n the Senate, 395. Objects to the Vice-President being president of the Senate, 522. Prefers biennial election of representatives, 224. Objects to the payment of the representatives by the states, 226. Urges a provision in the Constitution, to require periodical apportionment of representation, 289, 291, 293, 295, 303. Advocates the exclusive right of the representatives, as to money bills, 395, 397, 410, 414, 418. Opposes a very long term of citizenship for members of Congress, 399, 411. Objects to fixing the time for the meeting of Congress, 384. Wishes a provision to compel the attendance of members of Congress, 406. Objects to the expulsion of member of Congress by less than two thirds, 407. Thinks any one member in Congress should call for the yeas and nays, 467. Proposes that senators should enter their dissent on Journal, 407. Approves of ineligibility members of Congress to offices, 425, 505. Is willing to except offices in the army and navy from the rule, as to the ineligibility of members of Congress, 425. Does not like an absolute prohibition of Congress to issue bills of credit, 435. Prefers the regulation of the militia by the general government, 466. Wishes a provision made for the state debts, 471. Views as to a provision for the debts and engagements of the Confederation, 463, 476. Objects to navigation acts being passed by a majority, 495. Disclaiming a wish to give too great power to the national legislature, 139. His views on the mode of appointment of the judges, 329, 350. Approves of inferior national courts, 331. Opposes a removal of the judges on application of Congress, 482. Prefers the definition of treason in the British statute, 449. Advocates u guaranty to the states of republican institutions, and against violence, 333. Suggests the appointment to some national offices by the state authorities, 475. Proposes a provision as to the effect of legislative and judicial acts of one state in the others, 488. Prefers the appointment of some officer by Congress to fill a vacancy in the executive, 420. Advocates amendments of the Constitution without assent of Congress, 182. Desires a ratification of the Constitution by conventions of the states, 214, 353. Thinks the final ratification should be referred to a second general convention, 535. His dissent to the Constitution, 491, 502, 504, 514, 534.

RATIO. See Proportion; Representation.

RATIFICATION, of treaty with Dutch, 27. Of provisional articles, 85, 86. Of Articles of Confederation, Ill. Of the proceedings of the convention at Annapolis, to be by Congress, 113. Of Federal Constitution, 107, 108, 118. Of the Constitution to be by convention in the states, 128, 132, 157, 183, 190, 199, 352, 376, 381, 498, 532, 564. Of the Constitution by the state legislatures, 157, 214, 352, 500. Number of states required for it, 158, 354, 381, 533, 564. Of treaties, 469, 523.

READ, GEORGE, appointed judge of the Court of Appeals, 11. Spoken of as secretary of foreign affairs, 16. Attends the Federal Convention, 123. Desires a government more effective than the Confederation, 133. Wishes a strong national government, 163, 182, 244, 256. Insists on an equality of suffrage under the Constitution, 134. Views on the election of the President, 515, 521. Proposes that the President should appoint the Senate, 167. Wishes the President to have an absolute negative on laws, 385. Proposes that the senators should hold during good behavior, 241. Suggests nine years with a rotation, 242. Proposes a double vote to the President of the Senate on the election of President by Congress in case of a tie, 473. Objects to the number of representatives being too small, 293. Objects to Congress being too much restricted in a future apportionment of representation, 297. Approves of the same rule for taxation and representation, 306. Objects to residence as a necessary qualification of representatives, 389. Does not consider the provision relative to money hills as important, 396. Opposes the emission of bills of credit by Congress, 435. Remarks on the power of Congress over the militia, 445. Is in favor of a compromise relative to exports and slaves, 461. Thinks the courts of law and equity should be distinct, 481. Thinks the treasurer should be appointed like other officers, 436. Signs the Constitution, 565.

READ, JACOB, views as to mutinous conduct of troops at Philadelphia, 93.

REBELLION, Congress may subdue, 130, 131, 333, 378, 437, 497, 534, 561. Habeas corpus may be suspended during, 131, 484, 561.

RECALL of members of Congress, 127, 185, 422.

REELIGIBILITY of the President, 128, 131, 140, 142, 149, 190, 195, 325, 327, 334, 358, 362, 365, 369, 376, 380, 472, 473, 508, 512, 517.

REFUGEES, proceedings in regard to, 86, 88, 89. Proceedings of states against, 26, 58.

RELIGION, no law on, to be passed, 131. No test of, to be required, 446, 498, 564.

REMOVAL, of the President, 131, 147, 149, 192, 195, 340, 369, 376, 380, 480, 597, 528, 562. Of heads of departments, 446. Of the judges, 447, 462, 481. In cases of impeachment, 520, 559.

REPORTS OF COMMITTEES, on affairs of Vermont, 4, 8, 10. On case of Capt. Asgill, 2. On proposal of Pennsylvania to pay public creditors within the state, 5, 10. On salaries of foreign ministers, 5. On exchange of Cornwallis for Col. Laurens, 6. On rate of depreciation of paper money, 18. On valuation of land as basis of permanent revenue, 21, 43, 46, 48, 50. On the embarrassed state of the treasury, 22. Against increase of foreign loans, 26. On errors in transcribing treaty with the Dutch, 27. In favor of purchasing books, 27.

REPORTS OF DEBATES, character of Mr. Madison’s, 121. Mr. Madison’s mode of taking them, 121. In the Congress of the Confederation from 4th November, 1782, to 21st June, 1783, 1 to 94. In the Congress of the Confederation from 19th February, 1787, to 26th April, 1787, 94 to 105. In the Federal Convention from 14th May, 1787, to 17th September, 1787, 123 to 565.

REPRESENTATION, Mr. Madison’s views of what it should be linden the Federal Constitution, 107, 108. Ratio of, in the House of Representatives, 129, 134, 149, 177, 178, 181, 190, 219, 238, 288, 290, 316, 375, 377, 379, 452, 512, 530, 534, 558. Whether it should be different in the Constitution and Confederation, 134, 190, 248, 250, 251, 270. Delaware insists upon an equality of, among the states, 134, 135, 173. Ought to be in proportion to the number of people, 120, 161, 176, 190, 196, 205, 219, 280, 316, 375, 377, 379. That in the Senate should be proportional as well as in the House, 138, 168, 167, 190, 238. Of states in the Senate according to their importance, 174, 276. Equality of, in Congress, 134, 173, 175, 177. Ought to be in proportion to contribution, 178, 181, 288. Ought to be in proportion to the number of freemen and three fifths of the slaves, 181, 190, 192, 316, 375, 377, 379, 391, 558. Ought to be in the same ratio in both Houses, 182. Difficulty of adjusting it, 211, 249, 288, 294. Whether it ought to be proportioned equally among the states, 134, 135, 173, 190, 196, 211, 219, 238, 248, 251, 260, 270, 311. Equality of, in the Senate, 138, 181, 260, 261, 274, 285, 311, 317, 376, 377, 396, 416. Plan for compromise between the large and small states in regard to it, 260, 266, 270, 273, 274, 311, 316, 318, 319, 394, 396, 411, 418. Of the states in the Senate should be according to their property, 280, 276. Ought to be in proportion to property, 278, 281, 297. Ought to be apportioned by a periodical senses, 129, 130, 131, 279, 288, 293, 294, 302, 308, 316, 375, 377, 379, 559. Whether there should be a distinction between the new and old states, 279, 288, 298, 299, 310. Of the political character of the states in the Senate, 415.

REPRESENTATIVES, election of, by the people, 127, 129, 135, 136, 163, 189, 205, 223, 375, 377, 559. To be elected by the state legislatures, 136, 137, 160, 177, 223, 266. Term of, 127, 129, 183, 189, 205, 224, 375, 377, 559. Age of, 127, 129, 184, 228, 375, 377, 559. Qualifications of, 127, 129, 137, 189, 205, 370, 375, 377, 389, 402, 559. Compensation of, 127, 130, 189, 226, 230, 375, 378, 560. Ineligibility of, to office, 127, 130, 185, 189, 229, 230, 375, 378, 420, 503, 505, 560. Reëlection of, 127, 185, 189. Recall of, 127, 185. May originate acts, 127, 375, 378. To form a branch of Congress, 127, 129, 375, 377, 558. Qualifications of electors of, 129, 377, 385, 558. Number of, before a census, 129, 288, 290, 316, 375, 377, 559. Future number of, 129, 134, 149, 178, 238, 279, 280, 288, 294, 304, 375, 377, 379, 452, 512, 530, 534, 557. To originate money bills, 129, 188, 274, 282, 310, 316, 375, 377, 394, 410, 415, 428, 452, 510, 529, 560. To possess the power of impeachment, 129, 131, 341, 377, 462, 559. To choose their own officers, 129, 377, 559. To choose senators, 127, 129, 131. Their election to be regulated by the states, 129, 378. To judge of the election, qualification, and return of their members, 129, 378, 559. A majority of, to be a quorum, 130, 378, 560. Their privileges, 130, 378, 445. To keep and publish a journal, 130, 378, 559. Cannot adjourn beyond a certain period, or to another place, without the assent of the Senate, 130, 378, 406, 409, 5?0, 563. May repass acts returned by the President, 130, 376, 378, 560. Their general legislative power, 130, 375, 378, 560. Their speaker to fill the vacancy in the presidency, 131. Shall apportion the senators after a census, 131. Whether they ought to be proportional among the states, 196, 219, 238, 248, 250, 288. Not to be electors of President, 243. Property qualifications of, 377, 402. Vacancies of, supplied, 377, 395, 559. Previous term of citizenship, 377, 389, 558. May require the opinions of the judges, 445. Number from the large states to be limited, 452. To choose the President, 519, 520. To participate in the treaty power, 523. First election of, under the new Constitution, 381, 502.

REPRIEVE, granted by President, 131, 380, 480, 549, 562. Not to extend to impeachments, 131, 380, 480.

REPRISAL, letters of, not to be granted by a state, 131, 381, 561. Power of Congress over letters of, 440, 441, 510, 561.

REPUBLIC, alarm of the friends of, towards the close of the Confederation, 120. Must be the basis of our institutions, 127, 148, 216. Guarantied to each state, 128, 157, 182, 190, 332, 381, 564. Unfit for an extended country, 202. Liable to intrigues of foreigners, 203. Fate of that form of government involved in the decision of the Convention, 244, 268.

REQUISITIONS, of Congress on the states, 112. Revision of, proposed, 16. Their inadequacy to supply the treasury, 113, 119, 126. Their inefficiency under the Confederation, 126, 200, 201. New mode of, proposed, 180, 192, 453. Were regulated by temporary circumstances, 453.

RESIGNATION, of Robert Morris, 29. Of R. R. Livingston, 9. Of President provided for, 131, 380, 480, 507, 520, 522, 562. Of senators, 129, 377, 395, 559. Of representatives, 377, 559.

RESIDENT, representatives must be, 129, 377, 389, 559. Senators must be, 129, 377, 401, 559. A member of Congress under the Confederation need not be, 210. President to be, 462, 507, 562.

RESPONSIBILITY, of each department of government to be preserved, 164, 165, 327, 329. Of executive lessened by a council, 150, 165. Of executive in making appointment, 350, 523. Of the heads of department, 446.

RETALIATION in case of Capt. Huddey, 2. Mode of, discussed in Congress, 3.

REVENUE, necessity of a plan of, under the Confederation, 112. A plan of permanent revenue proposed, 18, 32, 39, 49, 51, 55, 62, 63, 66, 72, 77, 112. Proceedings of states in regard to it, 113. Its exhausted condition, 106. Cases of, within jurisdiction of national judiciary, 128, 190, 192. Manner of raising it, 201, 506. Provisions in regard to bills for, 415. Objections to a perpetual one, 440. Superintendence of plans relative to, 446.

REVISION, executive, and certain number of judiciary to possess the power of, in all legislative acts, 128, 151, 153, 155, 164, 195, 344, 378. Of legislative acts by the President, 130, 151, 154, 190, 195, 376, 378, 379, 534, 536, 560. Of state laws by Congress, 128, 132, 140, 171. Of the amended draught of the Constitution referred to a committee, 530.

REVOLUTION, effect of American, in Europe, 575. Blessings of, 117.

RHODE ISLAND, will not grant impost, 11, 13, 40. Her delegates in Congress, November, 1782, 1. Opposes forcible measures against Vermont, 10, 12. Statement of loans transmitted to her, 16. Opposes commutation of half pay, 42, 57. Interested in general revenue, 59. Views on the conduct of Mr. Howell, 80. Number of inhabitants, and proportion of contribution in 1783, 82. Desires to confine Virginia within the Alleghany, 93. Appoints delegates to the convention at Annapolis, 115. Refuses to send delegates to the Federal Convention, 118. Letter from, to the Convention, 125. Propagation of representation in the House of Representatives before a census, 129, 288, 290, 293, 316, 559. Proportion of representation in the Senate before a census, 129. Proportion of electors of President, 287, 288. Opinions there on Federal Constitution, 567.

RICE, 89.

ROADS, establishment of post and military, by Congress, 130, 434, 560. Regulation of stages on them, 440, 441. Plans in regard to, 446.

RUSH, JACOB, 11.

RUSSIA renews her mediation for general peace, 1.

RUTLEDGE, JOHN, represents South Carolina in Congress, 1. Voted for as President, 1. Remarks on Court of Appeals, under the Confederation, 2. Proposes to give to military commanders authority to retaliate for violations of laws of war, 3. Urges more precision in the orders of Congress to the executive department, 4. Views on a valuation of lands as basis of taxation, 5, 40, 45. Proposes conditional exchanged of Cornwallis for Colonel H. Laurens, 7. Urges adjustments of a plan of revenue, 13. Opposes salvage for recaptures on land, 18. Proposes to extent American commissioners from control of France, 18. Wishes to adhere to rule of proportioning taxation, as fixed by the Confederation, 21, 25. Appointed to confer with superintendent of finance of arrears of army, 24. Proposes that the negotiations in regard to confiscations and British debts should be made public, 26. Objects to a general land tax by Congress, 34, 37. Views on general system of revenue, 40. Proposes that states shall be credited with duties they collect, 41. Remarks on export of tobacco by authority of Congress, 48. Proposes valuation of land be made by Commissioners appointed by states, 48. Proposes military force to retake goods seized while under passport, 50. Proposes to appropriate impost to pay army first, 51, 52. Proposes a tariff of specific duties, 51. Dissatisfied with report of superintendent of finance, 67. Remarks on conduct of commissioners at Paris, 68, 75. Opposes including expenses received by states in provision for public debt, 78. Remarks on proportion of freemen to slaves in fixing contributions of states, 79. Advocates suspension of hostilities, 79. Remarks on completing cessions of public lands, 87. Delegate to Federal Convention from South Carolina, 106. Attends the Federal Convention, 123. Seconds proposal of Gen. Washington as President, 123. Opposes an adjournment of the Convention without adopting some plan, 318. Prefers a single executive, 140, 149. Thanks power of war and peace should not be given to the President, 140. Proposes an election of the President by the Senate, 144. Opposed to the President appointing the judges, 155. Prefers the election of the President by the national legislative, 338, 512. Wishes a property qualification for the executive, judiciary, and legislature, 403. Proposes that the ballet in Congress for the President be joint, 472. Proposes a representation of sates in the Senate according to their importance, 174. Proposes that senators shall have no pay, 187. Proposes an election of the representatives by the state legislatures, 160, 223. Wishes representation in the House of Representatives to be proportioned to contribution, 178, 181, 279. In favor of biennial elections of representatives, 183. Desires ineligibility of representatives to office, 233. Wishes representation to be according to property, as well as numbers, 279, 297. Proposes a periodical census, 279. Opposes too large a number in the House of Representatives, 293. Wishes it to be provided distinctly that Congress shall meet annually, 385. Desires that the term of necessary residence of a representative should be increased, 390, 391. Views on the term of citizenship for members of Congress, 400, 412. Objects to Congress altering the state regulations relative to be election of members of Congress, 401. Objects to Congress fixing the qualifications of its own members, 404. Wishes a specific enumeration of the powers of Congress, 139, 317. Objects to the exclusive power of the representatives over money bills, 419. His views relative to the provisions about slaves, 457. Approves of the prohibition on Congress to pass attainders and ex post facto laws, 463. Opposes a negative in Congress on the state laws, 408. Objects to a removal of the judges on application of the legislative, 481. Objects to any suspension of the writ of habeas corpus, 484. Proposes to prohibit the states from passing attainders or retrospective laws, 485. Opposes a provision requiring two thirds to pass a navigation act, 491. Opposes any national judiciary that is not merely appellate, 158. Objects to the judges forming a part of a council of revision, 349. Proposes the assumption of the state debts, 440, 441. Thinks controversies between the states should be left to the judiciary, 471. Objects to a division of the territory of a state without its consent, 494. Thinks two thirds of the Senate should be required to make a treaty, 527. Requires that a motion be made that amendments of the Constitution shall not affect the stipulation in regard to slaves, 532. Prefers to submit the Constitution to the Congress of the Constitution, but not to require their assent to it, 534. Signs the Constitution, 565.

S.

ST. CLAIR, 93.

SALARY. See Compensation; Pay. Proposal to reduce that of ministers plenipotentiary, 5. Of secretary of foreign affairs inadequate, 9, 89, 90. Reduction of, 99.

SALT, tax on, proposed, 39, 40, 61, 67.

SALT FISH, drawback on, 84.

SCHUYLER, GENERAL, spoken of a secretary of foreign affairs, 16, 91. Proposes Convention to revise Confederation, 117.

SCIENCE, power of Congress to promote, 440, 511, 561.

SCOTLAND, effect of union with England, 179, 269.

SEA, felony at, under jurisdiction of judiciary, 128. Felony at, to be legislated upon by Congress, 130, 378, 436, 543, 561.

SEAT OF CONGRESS, discussions in regard to, 112, 130, 373, 374, 409, 511, 561.

SECRECY, of the proceedings of the Convention, 125, 130, 216, 378, 408, 561. Of the proceedings relative to treaties, 523.

SECRETARY OF THE FEDERAL CONVENTION, William Jackson elected, 124.

SECRETARY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS, Mr Livingston, intends to resign, 9. Nominations for, 91.

SECRETARY, See Heads of Departments.

SECRETARY of liberty to be provided for by the Constitution, 127, 558.

SEIZURE, of goods under passport, 27, 50, 54. Of Spanish property, 99, 100.

SEMINARIES, power of Congress in regard to, 440,

SENATE, to be chosen by the first branch of the legislature, 127, 129, 131, 137. To be chosen by the state legislatures, 137, 163, 166, 189, 375, 377, 559. To be chosen by the people, 138, 167, 205. To be appointed by the President, 157, 272. To be chosen from districts throughout the Union, 138, 169, 205. To be apportioned by the representatives after a census, 131. Ought not to be chosen by the people, 137. To be nominated by the state legislatures, 137, 139. Number of members before a census, 129. Number of members, 129, 138, 166, 181, 266, 356, 377. Number from each state, 138, 356, 376, 377, 559. States to be represented in, according to their importance, 174. Ought to represent the states in proportion to their property, 269, 276. Equal representation of the states in it, 131, 166, 178, 181, 219, 260, 261, 274, 285, 310, 317, 376, 377, 396, 415, 416, 559. Represents the states in their political character, 415. Its aristocratic character, 422. Ought to be much smaller than the House of Representatives, 138. To be a restraint on excesses of democracy, 138. Representation of the states in it to be proportional, 138, 190, 238. Vacancies to be supplied by the state executives, 395, 559. Age of its members, 127, 129, 186, 189, 241, 375, 377, 559. Qualifications of its members, 127, 129, 189, 241, 247, 370, 375, 377, 398, 402, 559. Compensation of its members, 127, 190, 246, 271, 375, 378, 560. Ineligibility of its members to office, 127, 139, 190, 247, 375, 378, 420, 503, 595, 560. Reëlection of its members, 127. To choose the President, 144, 507, 508, 509, 512, 513. To consist of persons of wealth and influence, 166. Ought to be able to resist encroachments of the executive, 186. Its duration should be for life, or during good behavior, 203, 205. (Appendix, No. 5, p. 585.) To have a property qualification, 247, 272. Not to be ineligible to state offices, 247. Their liability to impeachment, 343. Their incapacity to be electors of President, 343, 562. Vote in it per capita, 356, 377, 397, 559. To have such property qualification as Congress shall provide, 377, 402. Previous term of citizenship required, 377, 398, 559. To be separately convened by the President, 530, 563. Term of senators, 127, 129, 170, 185, 199, 203, 215, 241, 375, 377, 559. Whether the yeas and nays shall be required there, 407. To consent to pardons by the President, 480. Cannot adjourn beyond a certain period, or to another place, without the assent of the House of Representatives, 130, 378, 560. May require the opinion of the judges, 445. Vote in balloting for the President, 472. To be divided into classes, 129, 241, 245, 270, 375, 377, 398, 559. To choose its officers, 129, 377, 401, 559. Majority a quorum, 130, 377. Its privileges, 130, 378, 445, 560. To keep and publish a Journal, 130, 378, 407, 408, 560. May originate acts, 127. Their power as to money bills, 129, 188, 375, 377, 394, 410, 415, 560. To try impeachments, 462, 507, 528, 529, 534, 559. May repass acts returned by the President, 130, 378, 560. Its general legislative power, 130, 205, 378, 379, 408. To declare war, 131, 438. To make treaties, 131, 205, 245, 379, 428, 524, 526, 562. To appoint ambassadors, 131, 379, 467, 562. To appoint judges, 131, 156, 328, 379, 467, 562. Joined with the President in appointments, 131, 205, 328, 330, 349, 507, 523, 562. To decide controversies between the states about territory or jurisdiction, 131, 379. Vice-President to preside over it, 507, 522, 559. Their president to fill the vacancy in the Presidency, 131, 380, 473, 507, 520, 562. First election of, under the new Constitution, 381, 502.

SEPARATION of the Union, 206.

SERGEANTS, mutinous conduct of, 91, 92, 93, 94.

SHAYS’S INSURRECTION, 94, 119, 126.

SHELBURNE, LORD, sincerity doubted, 74.

SHERMAN, ROGER, attends the Federal Convention, 132. Objects to the Constitution deviating too much from the Confederation, 133, 252. Wishes all the powers of government left to the states, that are not absolutely needed for the ends of the Union, 161. Disapproves of an unnecessary interference with the Southern States on the subject of slaves, 457, 461, 477. Prefers the legislative power remaining in a Congress, 218. Wishes a committee to suggest some plan of compromise between the large and small states relative to representation, 270. Wishes daily prayers in the Convention, 254. Objects to any discrimination in the representation of the new and old states, 310, 492. Suggests the number of the executive to be fixed from thee to time by the legislature, 140. Views on the election of the President, 142, 322, 472, 508, 513, 516, 519. Wishes executive to be reéligible, 142. Proposes three years as the executive term, 142. Advocates a removal of the President by the legislature, 142. Prefers a single executive, 150. Opposes an absolute negative in the executive, 152, 430. Wishes an executive council, 150. Thinks the President’s power of appointment should be limited by law, 474. Opposes an executive during good behavior, 325. Proposes one senator from each state, 138, 178. Advocates the election of senators by the state legislatures, 166, 169. Wishes the consent of the Senate required in pardons by the executive, 480. Advocates an equal vote of the states in the Senate, 178, 181. Proposes five years as the senatorial term, 186. Proposes six years as the senatorial term, 241. Wishes a rotation in the Senate, 241. Wishes the judges appointed by the Senate, 328, 329. Views as to the Senate being joined in the treaty power, 523, 526. Approves of the Vice-President being president of the Senate, 522. Advocates election of representatives by the states, 135, 161. Advocates representation in the House of Representatives in proportion to the number of inhabitants, 178, 297. In favor of annual election of representatives, 183, 225. Prefers an election of representatives by the state legislatures, 223. Prefers a payment of the representatives by the state legislatures, 227, 426. Objects to making the representatives ineligible to state offices, 231. Prefers making representatives ineligible to national offices, 231, 423, 505. Objects to making the number of representatives very large, 292. Thinks that the time of annual meeting of Congress should be fixed, 384. His reasons for introducing slaves into the ratio of representation, 392, 393. Objects to requiring the yeas and nays in Congress, 407. Thinks the publication of the Journal should be left to the discretion of Congress, 408. Thinks there is full liberty to make a discrimination between natives and foreigners as members of Congress, 412. Objects to reduce the ratio of representation, 530. Remarks on the negative of Congress on state laws, 172, 468. Views on the power of the general government over the militia, 444, 480. Desires an absolute prohibition on the states in regard to paper money, 485. Views on prohibiting taxes on imports or exports by the states, 486. Objects to a public provision for delivering up fugitive slaves, 487. Objects to requiring more than a majority to pass a navigation act, 489. Opposes exclusive right of the House in regard to money bills, 189. Objects to fixing a rule of taxation before a census, 307. Thinks that in votes by ballot there should be a mutual negative in each House, 382. Wishes a tax on exports prohibited, 433. Approves of Congress assuming the state debt, 441, 452. Proposes the appointment of judges by the legislature, 188. Opposes a national judiciary that is not appellate, 159. Thinks there is a distinction between treason against the United States and the individual states, 450. Objects to the judiciary trying impeachments, 529. Objects to interference of judges in legislation, 430. Objects to a general bankrupt law, 504. Desires a provision in regard to armies during peace, 511. Thinks any positive prohibition of a religious test unnecessary, 498. Thinks that amendments of the Constitution should be assented to by the several states, 531. Prefers to submit the Constitution to the Congress of the Confederation, but not to require their assent, 533. Views on the mode of ratifying the Constitution, 498, 499, 500. Signs the Constitution, 564.

SHIPS OF WAR, not to be kept by states during peace, 131, 381, 561.

SLAVERY, 391, 392, 457, 477.

SLAVES. See Negroes, Debates in regard to their exclusion in fixing quota of taxes, 46, 48, 79, 81, 82. Those taken by British, to be delivered, 88, 91. Three fifths of, included in ratio of representation, 181, 190, 192, 281, 288, 316, 375, 377, 379, 559. To be included in an apportionment of representation according to numbers, 290, 301, 316, 391. Three fifths to be included in ratio of direct taxation, 304, 305, 316, 375, 377, 391, 559. Provision in regard to their emancipation, 357, 487. Power of Congress to tax or prohibit their migration or importation, 379, 457, 471, 477, 532, 561. Compromise between the Northern and Southern States relative to, 460, 471, 532. Fugitive, to be delivered up, 487, 492, 563.

SMALL STATES contend for equal vote in Congress, 111.

SMITH, MERIWETHER, appointed a delegate to the convention at Annapolis, 113.

SMITH, THOMAS, represents Pennsylvania in Congress, 1.

SOLDIERS. See Army; Military.

SOUTH CAROLINA, her delegates in Congress, November, 1782, 1. Interested in general revenue, 60. Number of inhabitants, and proportion of contribution, in 1783, 82. Votes for Mr. Bland as President, 1. Adopts exclusive commercial regulations, 119. Proceedings in regard to Federal Convention, 106. Sends delegates to the Federal Convention, 123. Opinions there on Federal Constitution, 571. Proportion of representation in the House of Representatives before a census, 129, 288, 290, 316, 559. Proportion of representation in the Senate before a census, 129. Proposal to increase its proportion of representation, 290. Proportion of electors of President, 338, 339, 562.

SOVEREIGNTY, Mr. Madison’s remarks on that of states and Union, 107. Jealousies of the states about it, 127. How far it should be given up, 176, 177, 193, 194, 197, 201, 205, 212, 220, 240, 248. The people attached to that of the states, 200. How far it is retained and yielded by the states, 212, 220, 224, 248, 259, 269, 270. The effect of the separation from Great Britain upon it, 213, 217. Of the states represented in the Senate, 415. Of the states in cases of treason, 448.

SPAIGHT, RICHARD D., attends the Federal Convention, 123. Proposes rules to regulate discussions of Convention, 125. Urges the election of the Senate by the state legislatures, 137. Proposes seven years for the senatorial term, 186. In favor of reconsidering the decision, to choose the President by electors appointed by the state legislatures, 357. Objects to requiring more than a majority to pass a navigation act, 490. Suggests seven years for the executive term, 518. Signs the Constitution, 565.

SPAIN, negotiations with her, 68, 71, 74, 76, 97. Shows more favorable disposition, 1. Amount loaned by her, 82. Property of, seized, 99, 100. Her views in regard to western territory and the Mississippi, 97, 100, 101, 102, 105.

SPARTA, 197, 236, 252, 430.

SPEAKER to be a member of the executive council, 462. To fill the vacancy in the Presidency, 131, 380. To be elected by the representatives, 377, 559.

SPEECH, freedom of, 130, 378, 560.

SPRINGFIELD, 97.

STADTHOLDER, his intrigues to increase his power, 154.

STAGES, regulation of, on post-roads, 440, 441.

STAMPS, duties to be laid by Congress, 191.

STANDARD of weights and measures may be fixed by Congress, 130, 378, 434, 560.

STATE, council of, 446. Secretary of, 446.

STATES, (Under the Confederation,) a revenue system can only be made by mutual accommodation, 111. Will not pay their quotas of taxes, 112. Settlement with troops temporarily raised by, 6. Redeeming paper money beyond their quota, to be credited, 8, 14. Objections to addressing them through the commander-in-chief, 9. On their making the valuation which was to be the basis of taxation, 21, 24, 46, 47, 48. Their proceedings in regard to confiscations and British debts, 26. Their rights not affected by Congress raising a general revenue, 36, 55. Rule of voting, 45, 62, 88. Their mutual jealousies, 56. Plan of Mr. Madison for fixing their proportion of revenue, funding their debts, and establishing a system of public lands, 59, 77. Amount of loan-office debt of each state, 59. Their proportions of contributions according to whites and slaves, 79. Eastern and New York propose to hold a convention, 81. Their number of inhabitants, and properties of contributions in 1783, 82. Mode of adjusting their debts, 86. Claims of certain states for abatements in their apportionment, 58, 63, 77. Operation of treaties on them, 98. Settlement of their accounts, 99. Number of, required in vote to suspend the use of the Mississippi, 104. Their infractions of British treaty, 119. Address of Congress on the necessity of harmony and yielding local considerations, 111. Keep troops and make compacts without consent of Congress, 119, 120. Violate contracts by their internal administration, 120, 126. Jealousy between each other, 127, 220, 256. Encroach on Congress, 127, 172, 200, 217, 219, 248. Difficulties in their adopting the Confederation, 111. Differ as to suffrage in the Confederation, 111. Differ in regard to public lands in the Confederation, 112. Violate treaties of the Confederation, 119, 126. Differ in regard to taxes on imports in the Confederation, 112, 119. Their conflicting commercial regulations during the Confederation, 113, 119, 126. Five, send delegates to the Convention at Annapolis, 114. All except Rhode Island send delegates to the Federal Convention, 118. Proceedings in regard to a Federal Convention, 96, 106, 124, 125, 134, 191. Their sovereignty, how far affected by the Federal Constitution, 107. Their suffrage under the Federal Constitution discussed, 107, 108. Their proceedings in regard to the new Federal Constitution, 570, 572, 573.

STATES (Under the Constitution,) proposal to do them away, 182, 256. Their sovereignty, 176, 177, 193, 194, 212. Their efforts to increase their own power, 200. Must be swallowed up by the national government, 202. Not necessary for any of the main purposes of government, 202. To be thrown into one mass and divided again, 194, 211. Ought not to be swallowed up by the national government, 212, 217, 218, 220, 224. Effect of the separation from Great Britain upon their sovereignty, 213. Effect of the union on the large and small, comparatively, 214, 244, 251, 355, 268. Their situation will prevent combinations of the large against the small, 251. To be preserved by the Constitution, but rendered subordinate, 269. Alliance of the small ones with foreign powers threatened, 268, 269. Plan of compromise between the large and small ones, on the question of representation, 260, 266, 270, 273, 274, 316, 317. The people of, establish the Constitution, 376, 382, 536, 558. Not to be unnecessarily encroached upon, 139, 170, 194, 320. The powers of government ought to be left with them as much as possible, 161, 164, 168, 170, 176, 193, 194, 217, 238, 240, 248, 320, 462. Their encroachment on the general government, 168, 200, 201, 208, 221. Ought to be permanent, 169. Compromise between the Northern and Southern, relative to exports, navigation, and slaves, 460, 489. Their executives to correspond with the President, 131, 380. Their legislatures to appoint electors to choose the President, 324, 338, 357, 368. Their proportion of electors of President, 338, 339, 562. To be divided into districts to choose electors of President, 144, 205. Prefer a single executive, 128. Their executive to choose the President, 126, 363, 368. Their vote in Congress on a ballot for the President, 472, 520. Each to have one senator, 131, 166, 178, 181. Their executives to supply vacancies in the Senate, 377, 395, 559. Represented in the Senate in their political character, 415. To be divided into districts, to elect senators, 138, 169, 205. Their governors to be appointed by the national government, 205. Ineligibility of senators ought not to extend to state offices, 247. The number of senators each is to have, 356, 377, 559. To nominate senators to the House of Representatives, 127, 138, 139. To elect senators by their legislatures, 138, 163, 166, 240, 375, 377, 559. To be represented in the Senate proportionally, 138, 166, 170, 238. To be divided into classes for electing senators, 166. To be represented in the Senate according to their importance, 174. To be represented in the Senate equally, 131, 166, 178, 181, 219, 260, 261, 274, 285, 311, 317, 320, 375, 377, 396, 559. Their executives to fill vacancies in the House of Representatives, 129. To regulate the election of the representatives, 129, 377, 401, 559. To elect the House of Representatives, 135, 137, 160, 177, 223. Number of their representatives, 129, 274, 279, 288, 290, 294, 316, 375, 377, 394, 559. Whether they ought to have an equal vote in Congress, 134, 173, 175, 181, 190, 194, 195, 250, 260, 261, 267. To be represented according to their property, 260, 275, 281. To be represented equally in Congress, 124, 135, 173, 175, 194. To have the same ratio of representative in both Houses, 181, 190, 238. To have their representation in Congress limited in certain cases, 452. Their legislatures to ratify the Constitution, 157, 352, 500. Number required to ratify the Constitution, 158, 381. Congress to legislate where they are incompetent, 127, 139, 190, 317, 320, 375, 462. Their laws to be negatived by Congress, in certain cases, 127, 139, 170, 190, 205, 215, 248, 251, 468. Commerce among, to be regulated by Congress, 130, 378, 433, 454, 478, 484, 489, 502, 560. Exports from, not to be taxed, 130, 332, 379, 432, 454, 561. Decision of controversies between them about territory or jurisdiction, 131, 379, 471, 482. Their debts to be assumed by Congress, 441, 451, 452, 471. Their assent required to requisitions by Congress, 192. Their votes on money bills to be in proportion to contribution, 265. Force to be used against them in certain cases, 128, 130, 139, 192, 200, 217. Their authorities to take all oath to support the Constitution, 128, 182, 190, 351, 564. Voluntary junction of, 157, 190. Voluntary partition of, 182. To be protected from foreign and domestic violence, 130, 333, 378, 437, 446, 564. Regulations respecting their public lands, or claims to territory, 441, 493, 497. Their power over the militia, 443, 464, 561. Treason against there, individually, 448. Jurisdiction over cases between them, or their citizens, 128, 131, 187, 380, 446, 462, 563. Their courts to adjudge all offences against the Constitution, 192. Their treaties with the Indians, 208. Their treaties and compacts with each other, without the assent of Congress, 208, 381, 547, 562. Compacts or treaties between them, 132, 206, 356, 381. Republican institutions and protection from violence to be guarantied, 126, 128, 130, 132, 157, 182, 190, 216, 332, 564. Their citizens to possess mutual privileges and immunities in each state, 132, 381, 563. To deliver up to each other fugitives from justice, 132, 381, 563. To give faith to the records and proceedings of each other, 132, 381, 488, 504. Their courts should be the only judiciary in the first resort, 159, 331. To appoint to national offices, 475. To deliver up fugitives from justice, 132, 381, 487, 563. To deliver up fugitive slaves, 487, 492, 533. To assent to purchases by Congress within their limits, 511, 561. Not to grant letters of marque, 131, 381, 561. Not to confer nobility, 131, 381, 561. Not to lay duties, 131, 381, 486, 591. Not to keep troops or ships of war in peace, 131, 381, 561. Not to enter into compacts with each other, 131, 381, 561. Not to make compacts with foreign powers, 131, 381, 561. Not to emit bills of credit, 131, 381, 484, 561. Not to make any tender but gold, silver, or copper, 131, 381, 484, 561. Not to engage in war, except when invaded, 128, 381. Not to pass attainders or retrospective laws, 485, 488, 561. Not to pass laws impairing private contracts, 485, 561. Not to lay embargoes, 485. Conditions to be made with new ones on their admission, 381, 492. Admission of new ones, 128, 131, 157, 190, 192, 211, 279, 288, 297, 298, 310, 376, 381, 492, 495, 564. Convention to amend the Constitution to be called on their application, 381, 498, 564. Conventions to be called in them to ratify the Constitution, 128, 157, 190, 352, 376, 381, 498.

STATUE, one of Gen. Washington proposed, 88.

STIRLING, LORD, death of, 31.

STOCK-JOBBING, 475.

STRONG, CALEB, delegate to Federal Convention from Massachusetts, 106. Attends the Federal Convention, 124. Prefers annual elections of representatives, 225. Thinks that the principle of representation should be the same in both branches, 273. Urges an adherence to the compromise between the large and small states, 313. Objects to the judges forming a part of the council of revision, 345. Prefers the election of President by the national legislature, 358. Views as to the compensation of members of Congress, 427. Views as to money bills, 427.

STYLE, that of the government, 129, 132, 377, 382. That of the President, 131, 380.

SUFFRAGE. See Vote; Representation.

SUGAR, proposed duly on, 62.

SUMPTUARY LAWS, 447, 539.

SUPERINTENDENT OF FINANCE, See Finance.

SUPREME, objected to, as applicable to the decisions of the government, 132.

SUPREME COURT. See Judiciary; Judges. To be appointed by the national legislature, 128, 155, 188. To be appointed by the Senate, 131, 190, 328, 379, 469. To be appointed by the President and Senate, 205, 328, 330, 349, 507, 524, 582. Tenure, salary, and qualifications of the judges, 128, 205, 376, 380, 481, 563. Ought to be the only national tribunal, 155. Its jurisdiction, 128, 131, 187, 190, 205, 376, 380, 482, 563. Has original jurisdiction in cases of ambassadors, 131, 380, 563. Has original jurisdiction in cases of impeachment, 131, 380. Has appellate jurisdiction in admiralty cases, 131, 380, 563. To give its opinion in certain cases, 445.

SUPREME LAW, acts of Congress and treaties, 131, 192, 322, 375, 377, 467, 478, 564.

SUSPENSION, of hostilities proposed and refused, 80, 84. Of laws by the executive for a limited time, 154. Of the writ of habeas corpus, 131, 445, 484, 561.

SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT. See Plan. How far it should deviate from the Confederation, 133, 161, 176, 191, 193, 198, 214, 219, 248. Not to encroach unnecessarily on the states, 139, 161, 176, 238, 248. A strong national one advocated, 163, 202, 256. It ought to preserve as much of the state and national powers as may be compatible, 164, 168. Federal and national, compared, 133, 191, 198, 199, 206, 248, 256. National one adopted by the Convention in preference to a federal one, 212. General views that should govern the Convention in forming one, 119, 126, 194, 198, 206, 233, 242, 248, 256. As adopted by the Convention, after discussion, in a series of resolutions, 375. As draughted in the form of a Constitution by a committee of detail, 377.

SWEDEN, negotiations made public, 12.

SWISS CONFEDERACY, 201, 208, 236.

T.

TAXATION, mode of valuation as basis of it, 21. Amount borne by United States, 32. Different modes of, 38, 39, 55, 64, 77. Difficulties in regard to under the Confederation, 119. Proportion of suffrage in the legislature to be regulated by, 127, 130, 375, 377, 379. To be laid and collected by Congress, 130, 378, 469, 560. Not to be laid on exports, 130, 379, 432, 454, 561. Capitation to be in proportion to number of inhabitants ascertained by census, 130, 379, 391, 559. Direct, to be in proportion to number of inhabitants ascertained by census, 130, 316, 375, 379, 559. Direct, to be in proportion to representation, 302, 310, 375, 379, 391, 559. Direct, to be in proportion to the free inhabitants and three fifths of tide slaves, 304, 305, 316, 375, 377, 379, 559. Proportion of, before a census, 305, 307, 316, 451, 453, 559. On the migration or importation of slaves, 379, 457, 471, 477, 561. Means of direct taxations, 451. Proposal to raise it by requisitions, 453. Compromise between the Northern and Southern States as to that on exports, navigation, and slaves, 460, 471. To be laid only to pay debts and necessary expenses, 462, 469, 560. Capitation, 130, 379, 470. On navigation, 130, 379, 461, 470. To be uniform among the states, 478, 484, 489, 502, 543, 560.

TEMPLE, SIR W., 175.

TEMPLE, MR., admission of, as British consul, 101.

TENURE, of the judiciary, 128, 131, 156, 190, 205, 369, 376, 380, 563. Of the executive, 128, 142, 149, 190, 325, 397, 334, 338, 363, 365, 369, 375, 380, 472, 507, 512, 562.

TENDER, none to be authorized by the states but gold and silver, 131, 331, 484, 561. Bills of credit not to be made one, 434, 435, 561.

TERM, of the executive, 128, 142, 149, 190, 205, 395, 327, 334, 338, 363, 365, 369, 375, 380, 472, 507, 512, 56. Of residence and citizenship of the President, 462, 562. Of the Senate, 127, 129, 185, 190, 205, 241, 375, 377, 559. Of the representatives, 127, 129, 183, 189, 205, 224, 375, 377, 558. Of residence and citizenship for members of Congress, 379, 389, 398, 411, 559. Of tide judiciary, 128, 131, 156, 190, 205, 369, 376, 380, 563. Of census, 301, 375, 379, 559.

TERRITORY. See Lands, Public. Expense of their government, 92. Discontent in regard to Spain and the Mississippi, 101, 107. That of elicit state guarantied, 128, 157, 189, 199. Decision of controversies about, between the states, 131, 379, 471, 493, 497. Regulation of by Congress, 439, 493, 564.

TEST of religion not to be required, 446, 498, 564.

TITLE, of nobility, not to be given, 130, 131, 379, 381, 561. Of the President, 131, 380, 471. Not to be accepted, 467, 561.

TOBACCO, exported under passports from Congress, 43, 47. Virginia opposes the right to grant them, 43, 47.

TORIES, stipulations concerning in provisional articles, 88, 89.

TRADE. See Impost; Navigation. Reciprocal, with Britain and West Indies, 19. Treaties in regard to, ought to be carefully considered, 85. Convention at Annapolis to regulate it, 113. Between the states, under the Confederation, 115, 118, 119. Regulation of, by Congress, 130, 191, 378, 478, 560. Between the states, 478, 484, 489, 502, 539, 545, 548, 552. With the Indians, 439, 462, 507, 560.

TREASON, members of Congress may be arrested for, 138, 378, 560. Definition and punishment of, 130, 379, 447, 563. President to be removed for, 131, 880, 480, 528, 563. Pardon in cases of, 535.

TREASURER may be appointed by Congress by ballot, 130, 378, 436, 542.

TREATY, commercial one with Dutch, 27, 38, 119. Commercial one with Sweden, 12. With Austria proposed, 52. Preliminary articles with Great Britain negotiated and signed, 65, 68, 73, 74, 105. Secret article relative to Florida and Spain, 105, 67, 68, 71, 72, 73, 74. Commercial, with Russia proposed, 84, 89. Provisional articles ratified by Congress, 86. Commercial, with the British, 88, 101. With Spain relative to boundaries and the Mississippi, 98. Operation of, on the states under the Confederation, 99, 119, 126. Infractions of British treaty, 119, 120, 126. Violations of, by tide states during the Confederation, 119, 127. Infractions of that with France, 119. President to have an agency in them, 469. To be made by the Senate, 131, 205, 245, 379, 428, 469. To be made by the President, with the advice of the Senate, 205, 507, 522, 562. Not to be made by the states, 131. To be the supreme law, 131, 192, 322, 375, 379, 467, 478, 483, 564. To be enforced by Congress, 130, 192, 379, 457. Ratification of them, 469, 507, 524. The power of the Senate in regard to, 131, 205, 245, 379, 498, 469, 508, 524, 526, 562. Laws of states contravening them to be negatived by Congress, 127, 190. Plans of, to be prepared by the secretary of foreign affairs, 446. Not to be published in the Journal of the Senate, 408. How far they are to be considered as laws, 382, 483. Between the states without consent of Congress, 208, 381. Between the states and the Indians, 208. Between the states not sufficient for a union, 132, 206. Effect of their violation on the rights of the parties, 207.

TRENTON, Congress adjourns to meet there, 94.

TRIAL, to be in the state where the crime is committed, 131, 381, 484, 563. Of impeachments, 462, 484, 507, 528, 529, 534, 559.

TROOPS not to be kept by states during peace, 131, 381, 445, 548, 561.

TRUMBULL, JONATHAN, nominated as secretary of foreign affairs, 91.

TUCKER, ST. GEORGE, appointed to convention at Annapolis, 113, 114.

TYLER, MR., proposes the appointment of delegates to the convention at Annapolis, 114.

U.

UNIFORMITY, of commercial regulations, the object of the convention at Annapolis, 113, 114. As to bankruptcy and naturalization needed during the Confederation, 120. Of regulations relative to trade between the states, 478, 484, 489, 502, 540, 545, 548, 559. Of regulations relative to bankruptcy, 488, 503, 504, 560.

UNION, a more lasting one than that of the Corn federation desired, 111, 116, 117. Commercial regulations necessary to preserve it, 113. Endangered by conflicting regulations of the states, 113. Gloomy prospects of, in 1787, 119, 120. Division of, desired by some, 96, 190. Its dangerous situation in 1787, 127. Merely federal, not sufficient, 132. To be divided into senatorial districts, 138. Objects of it, 161. How to be dissolved, 206. Its nature, 207. Necessity of it, 210, 255, 257, 258, 976. Proposed, by throwing the states into one mass, and dividing them a new, 194, 902, 211.

UNITED STATES, government to be so styled, 129, 377, 382, 559. To form a corporation, 446. Treason against them, as distinguished from that against the individual states, 448.

UNITY of the executive, 140, 149, 150, 165, 190, 192, 197, 322, 358, 375, 380, 471, 562.

UNIVERSITY, establishment of, by Congress, 130, 440, 544.

V.

VACANCY, in the House of Representatives, 129, 377, 559. In the Senate, 129, 377, 395, 559. In the executive, 131, 389, 480, 597, 508, 520, 522, 562.

VALUATION. See Land. Mode of making valuation discussed, 24, 34, 43, 45, 46, 63, 77. Committee appointed to report mode of, 5, 24. Discussion whether it should be made by the states, 21, 94, 46, 48. Period during which valuation of land should continue, 46, 47, 77.

VARNUM, MR., views of operation of treaties on the states, 98. Remarks on admission of British consul, 101. Remarks on negotiations about the Mississippi, 102, 104. Letter relative to Rhode Island. (Appendix, p. 577.)

VERGENNES, COUNT, intercedes for Captain Asgill, 2. Remarks on course of American commissioners in negotiations at Paris, 17, 66, 68, 74, 76. Urges establishment of revenue to pay debt to France, 76. Writes to Luzerne relative to loans and negotiations, 76, 77.

VERMONT, disregards recommendation of Congress, 4. Alleged intrigues of Knowlton and others there with British, 7, 8, 10, 31. Proceedings in Congress in regard to them, 8, 10, 12, 14, 25, 44. Remonstrance from, against proceedings of Congress, 44.

VETO. See Negative. See Revision.

VICE-PRESIDENT, his election, 507, 520, 562. His powers and duties, 507, 508, 520, 559. Impeachment and removal, 529.

VIRGINIA, repeals her laws authorizing impost duties, 17. Denies right of Congress to grant passports for tobacco, 43, 47. Her delegates in Congress, November, 1787, 1. Votes fur Mr. Bland as President, 1. Repeals the impost, and declares her inability to pay her quota, 33, 37, 40, 43. Opposes abatement in apportionment of certain states, 58. Interested in general revenue, 60. Number of inhabitants, and proportion of contribution, in 1783, 82. The completion of her cession of western lands urged, 87. Discussion of her cession resumed in Congress, 91, 92. Desires to confine her within Alleghany, 93. Enlists troops, on account of insurrection in Massachusetts, 94. Instructions relative to the Mississippi, 97, 103. Sends papers relative to Spanish seizures, 99, 100, 101. Prohibits importation of various articles, 119. Averse to extending power of Congress of the Confederation, 113. Appoints delegates to the convention at Annapolis, 113, 145. Passes law appointing delegates to the Federal Convention, 116. Prefers a revision of the Confederation by a convention instead of Congress, 116. Proceedings relative to Federal Convention, 116. Sends delegates to the Federal Convention, 123. Advocates equal vote of large and small states in the convention, 126. Looked to for a plan for the new government, 126. Proportion of representation in the House of Representatives before a census, 129, 288, 290, 316, 375, 377, 559. Proportion of representation in the Senate before a census, 129. Desires a proportional representation in both branches of Congress, 249. Proportion of electors of President, 338, 339, 562. Opinions there about the Federal Constitution, 567, 568, 569, 571, 574, 576.

VOTE, role in committee of whole discussed, 45. When that of nine states required, 61, 62, 88, 92, 102, 109. Difficulties in regard to, in Confederation, 111. Equality of, insisted on by Delaware for each state, 124. Equality of, in the convention, objected to, 125. Of two thirds in Congress required in certain cases, 166, 379, 407, 598. Required to reënact laws returned by the President, 128, 130, 151, 155, 376, 378, 560. Equality of, in Congress, 135, 173, 194, 248, 250, 317. On money bills to be in proportion to contribution, 266. Mode of when Congress elects by ballot, 382. In the Senate per capita, 356, 377, 397, 559. By yeas and nays, 378, 407. Of the Senate on impeachments, 507, 559. Of the Senate in electing a President, 507, 512, 514. Of the Senate on treaties, 508, 524, 526, 562. Of the representatives in electing a President, 519, 562.

W.

WAR, reorganization of department of, 82, 99. Not provided for sufficiently by the Articles of Confederation, 127. Levying in cases of treason, 130, 379, 563. To be declared by the Senate, 131. Not to be engaged in by the states, 131, 381, 561. Ought not to depend on the executive, 140. To be made by Congress, 379, 439, 561. Department of, 442, 446, 462.

WASHINGTON, GENERAL, informs Congress of discontents of army, 66. Directed to arrest Luke Knowlton, in Vermont, 8. Communicates certificate of Mr. Chittenden, 25. Said to be unpopular from opposition to proceedings of the army about their pay, 55. Addresses officers of the army about their pay, 73. Announces satisfaction of army, 82. Recommends soldiers retaining their arms, 87. Statue of, proposed, 88. To carry into effect arrangements for delivery of posts, negroes, &c., by British, 88. Delegate to Federal Convention from Virginia, 116. Receives from Mr. Madison Ills plan of a national government, 121. Attends Federal Convention, 123. Elected President, 123. Addresses the Convention on taking the chair, 124. Remarks of Dr. Franklin in regard to, 147. Wishes the ratio of representation reduced, 555. Disapproves the exclusive provision as to money bills, but yields it for the sake of compromise, 420. Signs the Constitution, 564. Written to by Mr. Madison, on public affairs, 566, 568, 569, 572.

WAYNE, GENERAL, 19.

WEBSTER, MR., deputy of Massachusetts line to Congress, 26.

WEBSTER, NOAH, proposes a national government, 118.

WEBSTER, PELATIAH, proposes a Federal Convention, 117.

WEIGHTS, standard of, may be fixed by Congress, 130, 378, 434, 488, 560.

WESTERN TERRITORY. See Lands, Public; Territory.

WEST INDIES, trade with, 19, 110.

WHARTON, SAMUEL, represents Delaware in Congress, 1.

WHITE, PHILLIPS, represents New Hampshire in Congress, 1.

WHITES, as to distinguishing them in enumerations under the Confederation, 46, 48, 79.

WIDGERY, MR., course in Convention of Massachusetts on Federal Constitution, 572.

WILLIAMSON, HUGH, represents North Carolina in Congress, 1. Opposes exchange of Cornwallis for Colonel H. Laurens, 7. Moves for committee relative to Mr. Howell’s letter, 13. Proposes pledge of secrecy in certain cases, 22. Advocates purchase of books by Congress, 27. Discusses plan of permanent revenue, 35, 41. Opposes military force to retake goods seized while under passport, 50. Opposes discriminations among public creditors, 53. Opposes limiting duration of impost, 54. Remarks on the conduct of commissioners at Paris, 69. Advocates apportionment by numbers, 79. Remarks on proportion of freemen and slaves in apportioning the contributions of states, 72. Opposes hasty ratification of provisional articles, 86. Remarks on disbanding the army, 89. Proposes that there he no foreign ministers, except on extraordinary occasion, 90. Remarks on rate of voting if new states are admitted, 92. Attends the Federal Convention, 123. Proposes impeachment of the President for malpractice or neglect, 149. Prefers the consent of an executive council to appointments instead of either branch of the legislature, 522. Suggests the appointment by Congress of a provisional successor of the President, 480. Views as to the election of the President, 145, 324, 338, 358, 366, 509, 514, 515, 516, 517, 519. Prefers six years for the presidential term, 339. Wishes the proportion of electors among the states to be the same as that of representatives, 349. Prefers an executive of three persons, 358. Views as to the negative of the President on laws, 536. Disapproves of the seat of government being at a state capital, 374. Wishes the Senate to be small, 166. Proposes six years as the senatorial term, 241. Prefers the senators voting per capita, 357. Advocates a proportional representation of the states in Congress, 178, 250. Prefers a payment of the representatives by the state legislatures, 226. Thinks the ratio of representation too great, 512, 530. Urges a compromise between the large and small states relative to representation, 273. Desires representation to be fixed by a periodical census, 295. Approves of three fifths of the slaves as the proper apportionment of representation, 296. Urges the protection of the southern interest in apportioning representation, 291. Objects to the plan of compromise reported, 278, 282. Objects to giving Congress too much latitude in fixing the qualifications of its members, 404. Opposes a short term of citizenship for members of Congress, 411. Views as to the eligibility of members of Congress to office, 428, 595. Proposes that a vote of two thirds be required on legislative acts, 166. Opposes the negative of Congress on state laws, 171. Desires to preserve the efficiency of the states, 240. Prefers a vote of two thirds to pass a navigation act, 490. Approves of exclusive right of representatives over money bills, 395, 423, 428. Approves of the prohibition of a tax on exports, 433, 454. Views on the provisions relative to the importation of slaves, 460, 477. Approves of the prohibition on Congress to pass alta orders and ex post facto laws, 463. Doubts whether controversies between the states should be decided in all cases by the judiciary, 471. Objects to a Vice-President, 522. Views on the treaty power, 525, 596, 527. Thinks the territorial claims of the states should be left unaltered, 494. Views as to the rule of representation as applied to the new as well as to the old states, 289, 492. Thinks the oath should be reciprocal In regard to the national and state constitutions, 352. Wishes a provision for the trial by jury, 538. Prefers the ratification of the Constitution by conventions in the states, 355. Signs the Constitution, 5?5.

WILSON, JAMES proposes to refer resolutions, relative to Vermont, to the secretary of war, 15. Proposes to fix contributions of states by the number of inhabitants, 25. Advocates purchase of books by Congress, 27. Discusses plan for permanent revenue, 32, 35, 37, 39, 48, 78. Urges collection of revenue by officers of Congress, 34, 65. Representations in favor of creditors in Pennsylvania, 42, 43. Complains of obscurity of ordinance against piracy, 44. Advocates commutation of half pay, 44. Advocates same rule of voting in committee us in Congress, 45. Opposes military force to retake goods seized while under passport, 50. Opposes discrimination among public creditors, 51, 53. Advocates publicity Of debates, 52. Vindicates Robert Morris, 62. Opposes limitation on impost, 65. Advocates general hind tax, 67. Remarks on conduct of American commissioners at Paris, 70, 73, 74, 75. Advocates apportionment by numbers, 79. Remarks on proportion of freemen to slaves in fixing contributions of states, 79. Proposes a system relative to public lands, 83. Objects to proclamation about peace, 84. Remarks on obscurity of provisional articles, 86. Remarks on western limits of states, 87. Remarks on executive of Pennsylvania in regard to mutinous conduct of troops, 92. Attends the Federal Convention, 123. Reads Dr. Franklin’s speeches in the Convention, 122. Nominates Temple Franklin as secretary, 194. Desires the departments to be independent of each other, 143. Wishes to guard the general Government against encroachments of the states, 172. Desires the preservation of the state governments, 212, 221. Contrasts the plans of Mr. Randolph and Mr. Patterson, 195, 219. Thinks the separation from Great Britain did not make the colonies independent of each other, 213. Contrasts a national with a merely federative government, 219. Does not think the individuality and sovereignty of the states incompatible with a general government, 221. Opposes a committee to prepare a plan of compromise between the large and small states on the question of representation, 273. Wishes the executive to consist of one person, 140, 141, 150, 197. Views on the election of President, 142, 143, 322, 324, 337, 360, 362, 382, 472, 513, 516. Proposes that the President be chosen by electors chosen by the people, 144. Opposes removal of President by Congress on application of the states, 148. Objects to an executive council, 151. Wishes the President to have an absolute negative on the legislature, 151, 152. Wishes a provision for the impeachment of the President, 340. Urges a council of revision of the President and judges, 344, 348, 429, 430. Prefers a long term for the executive, 360. Thinks the power of the President to pardon should exist before conviction, 480. Urges election of senators by the people, 138, 167, 239. Proposes to divide the Union into to senatorial districts, 138. Advocates six years as the senatorial term, 241, 245. Opposes an equal vote of the states in the Senate, 261, 315, 416. Proposes one senator fur every one hundred thousand persons, 266. Not satisfied with the plan, giving all equal vote to the states in the Senate, 274, 285. Objects to state executives filling vacancies in the Senate, 395. Objects to the dissent of senators being entered on the Journal, 407. Objects to the Senate being united in the power of appointment, 523. Objects to the Senate being separately convened, 530. Urges election of the representatives by the people, 136, 160, 223. Advocates a proportional representation of the states in Congress, 177, 195, 239, 261, 311, 315. Suggests the number of freemen and three fifths of the slaves as a ratio of representation, 181. Advocates the same proportion of representation in both Houses, 182, 261, 315. Prefers annual elections of the representatives, 225. Opposes the payment of the representatives by the state legislature, 227. Objects to the compensation of the representatives being fixed, 227. Opposes qualification of representatives as to age, 228. Opposes disqualifying representatives for office, 229, 231, 423, 506. Does not approve of exclusive origination of rummy hills by t e representatives, 282, 284, 416. Considers the administration of slaves into the ratio of representation a matter of compromise, 301. Proposes that staves should be introduced into the ratio of taxation, rather than representation, 304. Thinks the rule for proportioning taxation to representation should exist before as well as after a census, 307. Thinks that population is the best rule, both for estimating wealth and representation, 308. Objects to disqualifying persons having unsettled accounts as members of Congress, 372. Thinks the vote by ballot, in Congress should be a joint one, 382. Prefers making the qualification of the electors of representatives the same with those of electors of state legislatures, 385. Objects to residence as a necessary qualification of a representative, 390. Remarks o a term of citizenship required for members of Congress, 399, 411, 412. Thinks a quorum in Congress s should not be less than a majority, 406. Thinks Journal of Congress should be published, 408. Views as to the privileges of members of Congress, 510. Desires a provision, to show that the contracts of the Confederation will be fulfilled, 332. Advocates a guaranty to the stales of republican institutions, and protection from violence, 332, 333. Doubts the advantage of requiring an oath to support the Constitution, 352. Objects to a prohibition to tax exports, 433, 455. Views on the provision respecting treason, 448, 449, 450. Objects to prohibiting a tax on the importation of slaves, 459. Objects to a vote of two thirds to pass a navigation act, 461, 490. His views in regard to attainders and ex post facto laws, 463. Opposes the proposition to allow the states to appoint to national offices, 475. Doubts whether habeas corpus should ever he suspended, 484. Desires an absolute prohibition on the states relative to paper money, 484. Thinks the states should be prohibited from passing laws impairing private contracts, 485. Thinks the territorial rights of the United States and individual states should not be altered, 494, 496. Views as to the effect of judicial acts of the several states among each other, 504. Views as to the treaty power, 523, 524, 526. Proposes the appointment of the judges by the Senate alone, 328. Objects to the removal of the judges on application of Congress, 481. Proposes the assent of three fourths of the states as necessary to future amendments, 531. Views as to the mode of ratifying the Constitution, 498, 499, 500. Thinks unanimity of the states in ratifying the Constitution should not be required, 158. Signs the Constitution, 555. Is not a native of the United States, 412.

WITHERSPOON, DR JOHN, represents New Jersey in Congress, 1.

WOLCOTT, OLIVER, opposes disclosure of negotiations relative to confiscations and British debts, 26. Remarks on Virginia repealing the impost, 33, 41. Objects to crediting states with the revenue collected on their imports, 41. Objects to coercive measures against Vermont, 44. Opposes commutation of half pay, 45, 57. Opposes valuation of lands by commissioners appointed by states, 48. Opposes alteration of impost, 49, 54. Remarks on conduct of American commissioners at Paris, 68, 73, 74.

WYNKOOP, HENRY, represents Pennsylvania in Congress, 1.

WYTHE, GEORGE, attends the Federal Convention, 123. Appointed on committee to prepare rules for the Convention, 124. Reports rules for the Convention, 126, 124.

Y.

YATES, ROBERT, attends the Federal Convention, 123.

YEAS AND NAYS, objected to in the Convention, 124. Rule, requiring them, rejected, 124. To be entered on the Journal of Congress, 130, 378, 407, 560.

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Contents

Introduction

In 1787 and 1788, following the Constitutional Convention, a great debate took place throughout America over the Constitution that had been proposed.

In-Doors Debate

View in-depth studies of the Massachusetts, Virginia, and New York state ratifying conventions.

The Federal Pillars

View drawings of the federal pillars rising published by the Massachusetts Centinel during the ratification debate.

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The Stages of Ratification: An Interactive Timeline

View the six stages of the ratification of the Constitution with links to many other features on this site.

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Interactive Ratification Map

View interactive maps showing the breakdown of Federalist-Antifederalist strength at the state level during the Ratification debate.

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