State-by-State Ratification Table

States are listed in the order in which they ratified the Constitution.

State Attended Constitutional Convention Other Significant Delegates State Ratifying Convention Expected Vote Final Vote Population (Ranking)* Significant Outcomes

Stage I: Now For the Bad News

Article VII | Political Arithmetic | The Response of the Confederation Congress | Let the Campaign Begin

Stage II: The Fall Campaign: Off to a Fast Start
Delaware Bedford, Bassett 12/4/1787 to 12/7/1787

Role in Six Stages
30–0 30–0 60,000 (13/13) Map of Vote; Timeline
Pennsylvania Wilson Findley,
McKean,
Pickering,
Rush,
Smilie,
Whitehill
11/20/1787 to 12/12/1787

Role in Six Stages

Elliot’s Debates
46–23 46–23 434,000 (3/13) Map of Vote; Timeline; Centinel Letters; An American Citizen Letters; A Foreign Spectator Essays; A Freeman Essays; Fabius Letters; An Old Whig Essays; Philadelphiensis Essays; Pennsylvania Minority Report; Harrisburg Proceedings
New Jersey Brearly Witherspoon 12/11/1787 to 12/18/1787

Role in Six Stages
38–0 38–0 184,000 (9/13) Map of Vote; Timeline
Georgia Few 12/25/1787 to 12/31/1787

Role in Six Stages
26–0 26–0 83,000 (11/13) Map of Vote; Timeline
Connecticut Sherman,
Ellsworth,
Johnson
Huntington,
O. Wolcott
1/3/1788 to 1/9/1788

Role in Six Stages

Elliot’s Debates
128–40 128–40 238,000 (8/13) Map of Vote; Timeline; A Countryman Letters; A Landholder Letters; A Citizen of New Haven Essays

Stage III: Winter in New England: Postpone and Compromise
Massachu-
setts**
Gorham,
Strong,
King,
Gerry
S. Adams,
Ames,
Bowdoin,
Dana,
Hancock,
Parsons
1/9/1788 to 2/6/1788

Introduction

Role in Six Stages

Summary

Elliot’s Debates
177–178 187–168 475,000 (2/13) Map of Vote; Timeline; Agrippa Letters; Atticus Essays; John DeWitt Essays; 9 Amendments Proposed

Stage IV: Springtime in the Middle States: and Then there Was One Pillar to Go
Maryland L. Martin,
Mercer,
McHenry
Paca 4/21/1788 to 4/26/1788

Role in Six Stages
64–12 63–11 320,000 (7/13) Map of Vote; Timeline; Maryland Farmer Letters; Genuine Information Essays; 13 Amendments Proposed but Rejected by Convention
South Carolina C. Pinckney,
C. C. Pinckney,
Rutledge
Lowndes,
T. Pinckney
5/12/1788 to 5/23/1788

Role in Six Stages

Elliot’s Debates
149–73 149–73 250,000 (5/13) Map of Vote; Timeline, 5 Declarations and Resolves

Stage V: A Long Hot Summer: Nail Biting Time
New Hampshire*** Gilman,
Langdon
Sullivan 6/18/1788
to
6/21/1788

Role in Six Stages, II

Elliot’s Debates
52–52 57–47 142,000 (10/13) Map of Vote; Timeline; 12 Amendments Proposed
Virginia Madison,
Wythe,
Mason,
Randolph
Grayson,
Henry,
Marshall,
Monroe,
Pendleton
6/2/1788 to 6/25/1788

Introduction

Role in Six Stages

Summary

Elliot’s Debates
84–84 89–79 821,000 (1/13) Map of Vote; Timeline; Federal Farmer Letters; State Soldier Essays; 20 Bill of Rights, 20 Amendments Proposed
New York Hamilton,
Lansing,
Yates
Clinton,
Duane,
Jay,
Livingston,
M. Smith,
Tredwell
6/17/1788 to 7/26/1788

Introduction

Role in Six Stages

Summmary

Elliot’s Debates
19–46 30–27 340,000 (6/13) Map of Vote; Timeline; Federalist Papers; Cato Letters; Brutus Letters; Caesar Letters; Cincinnatus Letters; Philo-Publius Essays; Circulation Letter, 25 Bill of Rights, 31 Amendments Proposed

Stage VI: All the Pillars in Place
North Carolina**** Davie,
Blount,
Spaight
Iredell 11/16/1789
to
11/21/1789

Role in Six Stages

Elliot’s Debates
194–77 194–77 429,000
(4/13)
Map of Vote; Timeline, 20 Bill of Rights, 26 Amendments Proposed
Rhode Island***** Did Not Send Delegates to Convention 5/26/1790 to 5/29/1790

Role in Six Stages
34–32 34–32 69,000
(12/13)
Map of Vote; Timeline; 18 Bill of Rights, 21 Amendments Proposed

Notes:

* The population figures are adapted from the official 1790 census figures. Consistent with the founding of 1788, a) 136,000 from Maine have been added to Massachusetts, b) 74,000 from Kentucky have been added to Virginia, and c) 36,000 from the SW Territories have been to North Carolina.
** Jackson Turner Main has the entry vote as 170 yes, 190 no.
*** Postponed earlier meeting on February 22, 1788. Jackson Turner Main lists the entering vote in June as 30 yes, 77 no.
**** Rejected Constitution 184-84 on August 2, 1788. Jackson Turner Main lists the vote as 193 no, 75 yes.
***** Rejected several attempts to hold ratifying convention.

Contents

General Overview

In 1787 and 1788, following the Constitutional Convention, a great debate took place throughout America over the Constitution that had been proposed.

In-Doors Debate

View in-depth studies of the Massachusetts, Virginia, and New York state ratifying conventions.

The Federal Pillars

View drawings of the federal pillars rising published by the Massachusetts Centinel during the ratification debate.

View Feature

The Stages of Ratification: An Interactive Timeline

View the six stages of the ratification of the Constitution with links to many other features on this site.

View Feature

Interactive Ratification Map

View interactive maps showing the breakdown of Federalist-Antifederalist strength at the state level during the Ratification debate.

View Interactive

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