My purpose is to reproduce an affordable, accessible, and authentic edition of James Madison’s Debates in the Constitutional Convention of 1787. Madison wanted to leave his Report of the Debates to posterity. He left the final decision of what should appear in print to his wife, Dolley Madison. The several editions published since his death, however, have moved further away from what the Madisons wanted published. Yet the editors all claim to rely on original sources. For the reader to understand the significance of Madison’s project, it is necessary to address questions about the sources on which previous editions have relied.