In December 1898 the United States signed the Treaty of Paris, ending the Spanish-American War. Spain relinquished its sovereignty over Cuba and ceded control over Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States in exchange for $20 million in compensation. The future status of those lands, particularly the Philippines, was very much up for debate. President William McKinley (1843–1901) proclaimed a military government there. He vowed to respect the rights of Filipinos but made no promises of self-government. On the scene, tensions mounted between U.S. occupation forces and Filipinos who had been seeking independence from Spain. This soon erupted into a guerilla war between the American military and the resistance (Filipinos themselves were divided on how best to respond to their new governors). The treaty received stiff opposition in the Senate, primarily from Democrats but also from some anti-expansionist Republicans such as George Frisbie Hoar (1826–1904), and was barely approved. Senator William Jennings Bryan (1860–1925) of Nebraska, the Democratic Party’s unsuccessful candidate for president in 1896, voted in favor, for the reasons he cites below.
The pro-annexationist forces made arguments similar to those of Albert Beveridge (Document 32). They pointed to the Philippines’ obvious strategic and commercial advantages and fine harbors for naval bases, which made them a “key to the wealth of the Orient.” The islands would themselves provide important markets and furnish a portal into the fabled China market. America, by virtue of its superior institutions, had an obligation to rescue lesser peoples from barbarism. But the geopolitical factors, as McKinley understood them, were at least as important. He believed that the Filipinos, divided among themselves and without experience in self-government, would fall prey to the rapacious European colonial powers, who were already in the process of dividing China into spheres of influence. That might lead to a great power war that would involve the United States or to the islands’ occupation by a power like Germany or Japan hostile to American interests.
When Bryan won his party’s presidential nomination again in 1900, he made Philippine independence the center of his campaign. Expansion would compromise America’s ideals and its special mission in the world. The acquisition of overseas territory with no prospect for statehood violated the Constitution and undermined the republican principles on which the nation was founded. The United States could not join the Old World in exploiting other peoples without betraying its anticolonial tradition. (Some Democrats, especially from the South, objected to any further inclusion of people of color.) Acquisition of overseas empire would require a large standing army and higher taxes, and would compel U.S. involvement in the dangerous power politics of East Asia and the Pacific. America should not abandon the Filipinos, but should establish a protectorate over the islands and allow them to practice self-government. But at a time of domestic prosperity and in the glow of military triumph, Bryan was soundly defeated by McKinley.
Source: Speeches of William Jennings Bryan, Revised and Arranged by Himself, with a Biographical Introduction by Mary Baird Bryan, His Wife, in Two Volumes (New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1909) vol. 2, pp. 17–49, available at https://books.google.com/books?id=Qte0CdftsDYC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false.
. . . When the president, supported by a practically unanimous vote of the House and Senate, entered upon a war with Spain for the purpose of aiding the struggling patriots of Cuba, the country, without regard to party, applauded.
Although the Democrats realized that the administration would necessarily gain a political advantage from the conduct of a war which in the very nature of the case must soon end in a complete victory, they vied with the Republicans in the support which they gave to the president. When the war was over and the Republican leaders began to suggest the propriety of a colonial policy opposition at once manifested itself.
When the President finally laid before the Senate a treaty which recognized the independence of Cuba, but provided for the cession of the Philippine Islands to the United States, the menace of imperialism became so apparent that many preferred to reject the treaty and risk the ills that might follow rather than take the chance of correcting the errors of the treaty by the independent action of this country.
I was among the number of those who believed it better to ratify the treaty and end the war, release the volunteers, remove the excuse for war expenditures and then give the Filipinos the independence which might be forced from Spain by a new treaty.
In view of the criticism which my action aroused in some quarters, I take this occasion to restate the reasons given at that time. I thought it safer to trust the American people to give independence to the Filipinos than to trust the accomplishment of that purpose to diplomacy with an unfriendly nation. . . .
If it is right for the United States to hold the Philippine Islands permanently and imitate European empires in the government of colonies, the Republican Party ought to state its position and defend it, but it must expect the subject races to protest against such a policy and to resist to the extent of their ability.
The Filipinos do not need any encouragement from Americans now living. Our whole history has been an encouragement not only to the Filipinos, but to all who are denied a voice in their own government. If the Republicans are prepared to censure all who have used language calculated to make the Filipinos hate foreign domination, let them condemn the speech of Patrick Henry. When he uttered that passionate appeal, “Give me liberty or give me death,” he expressed a sentiment which still echoes in the hearts of men.
Let them censure Jefferson; of all the statesmen of history none have used words so offensive to those who would hold their fellows in political bondage. Let them censure Washington, who declared that the colonists must choose between liberty and slavery. Or, if the statute of limitations has run against the sins of Henry and Jefferson and Washington, let them censure Lincoln, whose Gettysburg speech will be quoted in defense of popular government when the present advocates of force and conquest are forgotten.
Some one has said that a truth, once spoken, can never be recalled. It goes on and on, and no one can set a limit to its ever-widening influence. But if it were possible to obliterate every word written or spoken in defense of the principles set forth in the Declaration of Independence, a war of conquest would still leave its legacy of perpetual hatred, for it was God himself who placed in every human heart the love of liberty. He never made a race of people so low in the scale of civilization or intelligence that it would welcome a foreign master.
Those who would have this nation enter upon a career of empire must consider not only the effect of imperialism on the Filipinos, but they must also calculate its effects upon our own nation. We cannot repudiate the principle of self-government in the Philippines without weakening that principle here.
Lincoln said that the safety of this nation was not in its fleets, its armies, or its forts, but in the spirit which prizes liberty as the heritage of all men, in all lands, everywhere, and he warned his countrymen that they could not destroy this spirit without planting the seeds of despotism at their own doors. . . .
The forcible annexation of territory to be governed by arbitrary power differs as much from the acquisition of territory to be built up into states as a monarchy differs from a democracy. The Democratic Party does not oppose expansion when expansion enlarges the area of the Republic and incorporates land which can be settled by American citizens, or adds to our population people who are willing to become citizens and are capable of discharging their duties as such.
The acquisition of the Louisiana Territory, Florida, Texas, and other tracts which have been secured from time to time enlarged the Republic and the Constitution followed the flag into the new territory. It is now proposed to seize upon distant territory already more densely populated than our own country and to force upon the people a government for which there is no warrant in our Constitution or our laws.
Even the argument that this earth belongs to those who desire to cultivate it and who have the physical power to acquire it cannot be invoked to justify the appropriation of the Philippine Islands by the United States. If the islands were uninhabited American citizens would not be willing to go there and till the soil. The white race will not live so near the equator. Other nations have tried to colonize in the same latitude. The Netherlands have controlled Java for three hundred years and yet today there are less than sixty thousand people of European birth scattered among the twenty-five million natives.
After a century and a half of English domination in India, less than one-twentieth of one percent of the people of India are of English birth, and it requires an army of seventy thousand British soldiers to take care of the tax collectors. Spain had asserted title to the Philippine Islands for three centuries and yet when our fleet entered Manila Bay there were less than ten thousand Spaniards residing in the Philippines.
A colonial policy means that we shall send to the Philippines a few traders, a few taskmasters, and a few office-holders, and an army large enough to support the authority of a small fraction of the people while they rule the natives.
If we have an imperial policy we must have a great standing army as its natural and necessary complement. The spirit which will justify the forcible annexation of the Philippine Islands will justify the seizure of other islands and the domination of other people, and with wars of conquest we can expect a certain if not rapid, growth of our military establishment. . . .
The Republican platform assumes that the Philippine Islands will be retained under American sovereignty, and we have a right to demand of the Republican leaders a discussion of the future status of the Filipino. Is he to be a citizen or a subject? Are we to bring into the body politic eight or ten million Asiatics, so different from us in race and history that amalgamation is impossible? Are they to share with us in making the laws and shaping the destiny of this nation? No Republican of prominence has been bold enough to advocate such a proposition.
The McEnery Resolution, adopted by the Senate immediately after the ratification of the treaty, expressly negatives this idea. The Democratic platform describes the situation when it says that the Filipinos cannot be citizens without endangering our civilization. Who will dispute it? And what is the alternative? If the Filipino is not to be a citizen, shall we make him a subject? On that question the Democratic platform speaks with equal emphasis. It declares that the Filipino cannot be a subject without endangering our form of government. A republic can have no subjects. A subject is possible only in a government resting upon force; he is unknown in a government deriving its just powers from the consent of the governed. . . .
But a war of conquest is as unwise as it is unrighteous. A harbor and coaling station in the Philippines would answer every trade and military necessity, and such a concession could have been secured at any time without difficulty.
It is not necessary to own people in order to trade with them. We carry on trade today with every part of the world, and our commerce has expanded more rapidly than the commerce of any European empire. We do not own Japan or China, but we trade with their people. We have not absorbed the republics of Central and South America, but we trade with them. It has not been necessary to have any political connections with Canada or the nations of Europe in order to trade with them. Trade cannot be permanently profitable unless it is voluntary.
When trade is secured by force, the cost of securing it and retaining it must be taken out of the profits and the profits are never large enough to cover the expense. Such a system would never be defended but for the fact that the expense is borne by all the people, while the profits are enjoyed by a few.
Imperialism would be profitable to the Army contractors; it would be profitable to the ship owners, who would carry live soldiers to the Philippines and bring dead soldiers back; it would be profitable to those who would seize upon the franchises, and it would be profitable to the officials whose salaries would be fixed here and paid over there; but to the farmer, to the laboring man, and to the vast majority of those engaged in other occupations it would bring expenditure without return and risk without reward.
Farmers and laboring men have, as a rule, small incomes and under systems which place the tax upon consumption pay more than their fair share of the expenses of government. Thus the very people who receive least benefit from imperialism will be injured most by the military burdens which accompany it.
In addition to the evils which he and the farmer share in common, the laboring man will be the first to suffer if Oriental subjects seek work in the United States; the first to suffer if American capital leaves our shores to employ Oriental labor in the Philippines to supply the trade of China and Japan; the first to suffer from the violence which the military spirit arouses; and the first to suffer when the methods of imperialism are applied to our own government.
It is not strange, therefore, that the labor organizations have been quick to note the approach of these dangers and prompt to protest against both militarism and imperialism. . . .
There is an easy, honest, honorable solution of the Philippine question. It is set forth in the Democratic platform and it is submitted with confidence to the American people. This plan I unreservedly indorse. If elected, I will convene Congress in extraordinary session as soon as I am inaugurated and recommend an immediate declaration of the nation’s purpose, first, to establish a stable form of government in the Philippine Islands, just as we are now establishing a stable form of government in Cuba; second, to give independence to the Filipinos, just as we have promised to give independence to the Cubans; third, to protect the Filipinos from outside interference while they work out their destiny, just as we have protected the republics of Central and South America, and are, by the Monroe doctrine, pledged to protect Cuba.
A European protectorate often results in the plundering of the ward by the guardian. An American protectorate gives to the nation protected the advantage of our strength, without making it the victim of our greed. For three-quarters of a century the Monroe Doctrine has been a shield to neighboring republics and yet it has imposed no pecuniary burden upon us. After the Filipinos had aided us in the war against Spain, we could not honorably turn them over to their former masters; we could not leave them to be the victims of the ambitious designs of European nations, and since we do not desire to make them a part of us or to hold them as subjects, we propose the only alternative, namely, to give them independence and guard them against molestation from without.
When our opponents are unable to defend their position by argument they fall back upon the assertion that it is destiny, and insist that we must submit to it, no matter how much it violates our moral precepts and our principles of government. This is a complacent philosophy. It obliterates the distinction between right and wrong and makes individuals and nations the helpless victims of circumstance.
Destiny is the subterfuge of the invertebrate, who, lacking the courage to oppose error, seeks some plausible excuse for supporting it. Washington said that the destiny of the republican form of government was deeply, if not finally, staked on the experiment entrusted to the American people. How different Washington’s definition of destiny from the Republican definition!
The Republicans say that this nation is in the hands of destiny; Washington believed that not only the destiny of our own nation but the destiny of the republican form of government throughout the world was entrusted to American hands. Washington was right. The destiny of this Republic is in the hands of its own people, and upon the success of the experiment here rests the hope of humanity. No exterior force can disturb this Republic, and no foreign influence should be permitted to change its course. What the future has in store for this nation no one has authority to declare, but each individual has his own idea of the nation’s mission, and he owes it to his country as well as to himself to contribute as best he may to the fulfillment of that mission.
Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Committee, I can never fully discharge the debt of gratitude which I owe to my countrymen for the honors which they have so generously bestowed upon me; but, sirs, whether it be my lot to occupy the high office for which the convention has named me, or to spend the remainder of my days in private life, it shall be my constant ambition and my controlling purpose to aid in realizing the high ideals of those whose wisdom and courage and sacrifices brought the Republic into existence.
I can conceive of a national destiny surpassing the glories of the present and the past—a destiny which meets the responsibilities of today and measures up to the possibilities of the future. Behold a Republic, resting securely upon the foundation stones quarried by revolutionary patriots from the mountain of eternal truth—a Republic applying in practice and proclaiming to the world the self-evident propositions that all men are created equal; that they are endowed with inalienable rights; that governments are instituted among men to secure these rights, and that governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed. Behold a Republic in which civil and religious liberty stimulates to earnest endeavor and in which the law restrains every hand uplifted for a neighbor’s injury—a Republic in which every citizen is a sovereign, but in which no one cares to wear a crown. Behold a republic standing erect while empires all around are bowed beneath the weight of their own armaments—a Republic whose flag is loved while other flags are only feared. Behold a Republic increasing in population, in wealth, in strength, and in influence, solving the problems of civilization and hastening the coming of an universal brotherhood—a Republic which shakes thrones and dissolves aristocracies by its silent example and gives light and inspiration to those who sit in darkness. Behold a Republic gradually but surely becoming the supreme moral factor in the world’s progress and the accepted arbiter of the world’s disputes—a Republic whose history, like the path of the just, “is as the shining light that shineth more and more unto the perfect day.”
- 1. President William McKinley (1843–1901).
- 2. That is, Spain.
- 3. Patrick Henry (1736–1799) of Virginia, one of the leaders of the American Revolution.
- 4. See Letter to John Breckinridge, Speech on the Constitutionality of the Louisiana Purchase, Letter to the Editors of the National Intelligencer Opposing the Annexation of Texas, Letter to Richard Pakenham, British Minister to the United States, Annexation, Special Message to Congress on Mexican Relations, Speech on the War with Mexico, and Annual Message to Congress
- 5. Java is an island of Indonesia, bordered by the Indian Ocean on the south and the Java Sea on the north. It was part of the Dutch Empire.
- 6. The Republican Party platform for the election of 1900.
- 7. Democratic senator Samuel D. McEnery (1837–1910) of Louisiana successfully introduced a resolution that provided that the inhabitants of the Philippines would not be made citizens of the United States, and that the United States would establish a government that would prepare the people of the Philippines for local self-government. Democratic senator Augustus Bacon (1839–1914) of Georgia offered a resolution that was defeated by the vice president’s vote on a tie. The latter resolution disclaimed any intention to exercise a permanent dominion over the islands and promised eventually to give the control of the Philippines to the natives.
- 8. See Seventh Annual Message to Congress (Monroe Doctrine)
- 9. A delegation of Democratic Party leaders who officially informed Bryan of his nomination as the party’s presidential candidate. At this time, contenders for the nomination typically did not attend the nominating convention in person.
- 10. Proverbs 4:18.