An introduction to the “out of doors” debate that took place between Federalists and Anti-Federalists across the country in 1787 and 1788.
View the sequence and documents of the 1787-1788 “out-of-doors” debates in newspapers in pamphlets during the ratification of the Constitution.
Learn about the key figures in the Federalist and Antifederalist debate over the proposed Constitution.
Read Gordon Lloyd’s introduction to the Federalists who supported the Constitution as well as his essential Federalists.
Read Gordon Lloyd’s introduction to the Antifederalists who opposed the Constitution as well as his essential Antifederalists.
Read perspectives from both sides of the debate on key issues related to government’s role, structure, and powers.