Address to the Osage

Image: Osage War Dance, Zotom (Biter/Zo-tom/Paul Caryl Zotom) (Fort Marion, Florida: c.1875) National American Indian Museum.
What arguments did Tecumseh make to the Osage, a Plains tribal nation far from the Great Lakes and the Midwest? Tecumseh’s vision was a grand alliance of all Indian tribes against the United States. What were the obstacles to this? What were its inherent weaknesses?
>How was Tecumseh’s rebellion similar to Pontiac’s? How was it different from Wovoka’s Ghost Dance movement?

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Tecumseh (c. 1768–1813) was a Shawnee warrior and leader. He worked with his brother Tenskwatawa and used his brother’s vision to attempt to forge all Native tribal nations into a single grand alliance to unite and retake their lands from whites. He succeeded in drawing large numbers of warriors to his cause.

Territorial governor of Indiana William Henry Harrison (1773–1841) disapproved of Tecumseh’s gathering force and sought to undermine it by negotiating land cession treaties with individual tribes. During 1810 and 1811, Tecumseh traveled extensively from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico to recruit tribal nations to join him. While he was away on one of his embassies, Harrison marched a force of nine hundred men to Tecumseh’s headquarters, Prophetstown (after his brother, Tenskwatawa, the Shawnee Prophet), on the Tippecanoe River. The Americans routed the Indians and burned Prophetstown. Tecumseh attempted to construct his alliance and fought for the British during the War of 1812. He died at the Battle of the Thames in Canada on October 5, 1813. Tecumseh delivered the speech below to the Osage, a southern Plains tribe, during his 1811 tour.

—Jace Weaver

D. B. Read, Life and Times of Major-General Sir Isaac Brock (Toronto: W. Briggs, 1894), 174–176,

Brothers—We all belong to one family; we are all children of the Great Spirit; we walk in the same path; slake our thirst at the same spring; and now affairs of the greatest concern lead us to smoke the pipe around the same council fire!

Brothers—We are friends; we must assist each other to bear our burdens. The blood of many of our fathers and brothers has run like water on the ground, to satisfy the avarice of the white men. We, ourselves, are threatened with a great evil; nothing will pacify them but the destruction of all the red men.

Brothers—When the white men first set foot on our grounds, they were hungry; they had no place on which to spread their blankets, or to kindle their fires. They were feeble; they could do nothing for themselves. Our father commiserated their distress and shared freely with them whatever the Great Spirit had given his red children. They gave them food when hungry, medicine when sick, spread skins for them to sleep on, and gave them grounds, that they might hunt and raise corn.

Brothers—The white people are like poisonous serpents: when chilled, they are feeble and harmless; but invigorate them with warmth, and they sting their benefactors to death.

The white people came among us feeble; and now we have made them strong, they wish to kill us, or drive us back, as they would wolves and panthers.

Brothers—The white men are not friends to the Indians: at first, they only asked for land sufficient for a wigwam; now, nothing will satisfy them but the whole of our hunting grounds, from the rising to the setting sun.

Brothers—The white men want more than our hunting grounds; they wish to kill our warriors; they would even kill our old men, women, and little ones.

Brothers—Many winters ago, there was no land; the sun did not rise and set: all was darkness. The Great Spirit made all things. He gave the white people a home beyond the great waters. He supplied these grounds with game, and gave them to his red children; and he gave them strength and courage to defend them.

Brothers—My people wish for peace; the red men all wish for peace; but where the white people are, there is no peace for them, except it be on the bosom of our mother.

Brothers—The white men despise and cheat the Indians; they abuse and insult them; they do not think the red men sufficiently good to live.

The red men have borne many and great injuries; they ought to suffer them no longer. My people will not; they are determined on vengeance; they have taken up the tomahawk; they will make it fat with blood; they will drink the blood of the white people.

Brothers—My people are brave and numerous; but the white people are too strong for them alone. I wish you to take up the tomahawk with them. If we all unite, we will cause the rivers to stain the great waters with their blood.

Brothers—If you do not unite with us, they will first destroy us, and then you will fall an easy prey to them. They have destroyed many nations of red men because they were not united, because they were not friends to each other.

Brothers—The white people send runners amongst us; they wish to make us enemies that they may sweep over and desolate our hunting grounds, like devastating winds, or rushing waters.

Brothers—Our Great Father, over the great waters, is angry with the white people, our enemies. He will send his brave warriors against them; he will send us rifles, and whatever else we want—he is our friend, and we are his children.

Brothers—Who are the white people that we should fear them? They cannot run fast, and are good marks to shoot at: they are only men; our fathers have killed many of them; we are not squaws, and we will stain the earth red with blood.

Brothers—The Great Spirit is angry with our enemies; he speaks in thunder, and the earth swallows up villages, and drinks up the Mississippi. The great waters will cover their lowlands; their corn cannot grow, and the Great Spirit will sweep those who escape to the hills from the earth with his terrible breath.

Brothers—We must be united; we must smoke the same pipe; we must fight each other’s battles; and more than all, we must love the Great Spirits he is for us; he will destroy our enemies, and make all his red children happy

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